Operations Chapter 4

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Operations Chapter 4
2012-03-24 15:38:06

Motivation and Teamwork for Organizational Success
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  1. Define motivation for employees and describe 3 theories of motivation - expectancy theory, goal-setting theory, and self-determination theory.
  2. Explain how characteristics of job design and flexible work arrangements can enhance employee motivation.
  3. Explain how employers can use extrinsic rewards to motivate employees.
  4. Define employee egagement and explain ways org's try to enhance employee engagement.
  5. Describe characteristics of groups, explain how groups form, and contrast the effectiveness and efficiency of groups and individuals in financial svcs co's.
  6. Describe the problems of groupthink and groupshift.
  7. Describe the types of teams common in financial svcs co's and discuss the factors that contribute to team effectiveness.
  8. Define organizational politics and explain the causes and effects of political behavior in organizations.
  9. motivation
    A force that gives purpose and direction to an individuals behavior.
  10. intrinsic motivation
    A force that causes an individual to initiate an activity for its own sake, because its interesting & satisfying.
  11. extrinsic motivation
    A force that causes an individual to pursue an activity to obtain an external goal.
  12. expectancy theory
    Theory of motivation that states the strength of a persons tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of their expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome.
  13. goal-setting theory
    Theory of motivation that argues that giving empees specific goals that are always challenging yet attainable, along with feedback on their progress toward these goals, enhances motivation.
  14. self-determination theory (SDT)
    Theory of motivation, focuses on beneficial effects of intrinsic motivation and the harmful effects of extrinsic motivation. Proposes that ppl prefer to feel they are in charge of their work, that they are intrinsically motivated by it, rather than that they work to obtain goals imposed by a supervisor or other authority.
  15. cognitive evaluation theory (CET)
    Subset of SDT, providing extrinsic rewards for behavior that had been previously intrinsically rewarding tends to decrease the ovearll level of motivation if the rewards are seen as controlling or coercive.
  16. intrinsic rewards
    Positive outcomes that are self granted and internally experienced.
  17. extrinsic rewards
    Positive outcomes granted to an individual by other people.
  18. job design
    The way in which the elements of a job are organized.
  19. job rotation
    Periodically shifting an empee from one task to another task with similar skill requirements.
  20. job enlargement
    Type of job redesign, creates a single new job by combining two or more specialized tasks in a given work flow.
  21. job enrichment
    Type of job redesign that increases the degree to which a worker controls the planning, execution, evaluation of the work.
  22. skill variety
    the degree to which a job requires a variety of different activities, allowing the worker to use different skills and talents.
  23. task identity
    the degree to which a job requires the completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work.
  24. task significance
    the degree to which a job affects the lives of other people.
  25. autonomy
    As a dimension of work, the degree to which a job gives a worker freedom, independence and discretion in scheduling the work and determining how to carry it out.
  26. feedback
    As a dimension of job enrichment, the degree to which carrying out job activities leads to direct and clear info about an empee's performance.
  27. flexible benefits plan
    allows each empee to select the benefits package that best satisfies her current needs and situation.
  28. merit-based compensation plan
    pay plan based on performance appraisal ratings.
  29. skills-based pay increase
    variation of merit pay raise that rewards empees for developing and improving job skills.
  30. lateral skills development
    skill based pay increase, growth w/in an empees current job
  31. performance-based compensation system
    some or all of an empees annual compensation reflects the acheivement of key co goals during the preceding year.
  32. piece-rate pay plan
    a type of pay plan that pays a fixed amount for each unit of production completed.
  33. sales commission
    an amount of $, usually a % of a sale, paid to someone for selling a product/service.
  34. spot bonus
    a bonus a supervisor awards on an immediate basis to an empee who has performed in an exceptional way on the job.
  35. peer recognition program
    coworkers recognize eahc other for exceptional behavior.
  36. Theory X
    in the field of management, a label which represents an unenlightened view that empees dislike work, shirk responsiblity, lazy, must be coerced into performing.
  37. Theory Y
    in the field of management, a label respresenting an optimistic and enlightened view that empees generally like work, seek responsibility, are creative, and are able to exercise self direction.
  38. employee engagement
    an individuals involvement with, satisfaction with, and enthusiasm for the work he does.
  39. group
    2 or more indivs who come together to share a common identiy or purpose.
  40. informal group
    a group of ppl who come together primarily for social reasons, such as friendship.
  41. formal group
    group of ppl who come together for the purpose of doing productive work.
  42. role
    a socially determined way of behaving in a specific situation.
  43. role expectations
    How others believe an individual should act in a given situation.
  44. role conflict
    conflict occurs when individs are confronted by different role expectations.
  45. ostracism
    in group dynamics, the rejection of 1 or more individs from the group.
  46. conformity
    in group dynamics, a condition that occurs when a group member adjusts her behavior to align it with the norms of the group.
  47. deviant workplace behavior
    a voluntary behavior that violates org norms and threatens the wellbeing of the org or its members.
  48. cohesiveness
    tendency of group members to follow the group and resist outside influences.
  49. groupthink
    members of a group stress conformity and unanimity to the point where alternative courses of action are ignored.
  50. groupshift
    in a group decision process in an org, a change in decision risk b/t a group's decision and the decision that an individual member w/in the group would make.
  51. participative management
    a managment approach that empowers empees to assume greater control of the workplace.
  52. quality circle (QC)
    a voluntary group of 5-10 empees who meet regularly to discuss quality improvement and ways to reduce costs. Typically a group of empees & their supervisor from a single operational area.
  53. problem-solving team
    a work group typically consisting of empees who, bcos of their knowledge/expertise, are assigned to participate in a project htat has a specific, limt'd objective.
  54. self-managed team
    work group typically 10-15 members handling many traditional managerial responsibilities as part of their normal work routine.
  55. cross-functional team
    team of reps from 2 or more work groups who perform related business activities, dedicated to improving processes and procedures that cross org'l boundaries.
  56. product development team
    a type of cross functional team that usually performs hands on development of a new product.
  57. virtual work team
    team where separate business sites are electronically linked to form a single work group for purposes of managing, scheduling, monitoring, and conducting business activities.
  58. net meeting
    a type of meeting that combines audio, video, data communication over the internet, enabling members to log onto an i'net site at a scheduled time to meet and share info.
  59. organization politics
    the use of political, or self serving, behaviors in organizations.