computer vocab

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computer vocab
2012-01-09 18:46:46
intro computers

the vocab of the first book of intro to computers
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  1. Multiprocessing
    the ability to run two or more programs simultaneously
  2. Multithreading
    a single program or application can be written so that it can be executed as two or more threads of instructions
  3. Thread
    can be though of as a stand alone task
  4. Prcemptive Multitasking
    "OS" controls the switching, each program in turns for a specific period of time although the program being executed can give up the control before it allotted time is up
  5. Cooperative Multitasking
    OS transfers control of the program them selves and the programs determine when to switching occurs
  6. I.C.H
    • AKA south brige
    • ICH controls :
    • aClock Generator
    • bFan speed conrtol
    • cPower mangement
    • dhigh defintion audio code
    • esuper I/O
    • fBIOS
    • gUSB, SATS, IDE, Ports
    • hpci bus pc bus ple bus
  7. G.M.C.H
    • AKA North brige GMCH controls:
    • System memory
    • display ports *2
    • AGP/ PCI *16 graphics card
  8. Molex power connector
    • Used for hard drives and optical drives
    • CD and DVD drives
  9. Form Factor
    Identifies the Dimensions of the board, the mounting holes arrangement, and the location of the board
  10. EMI
    Electrolmagnetic Interference
  11. RFI
    Radio Frequency Interference
  12. Propretary
    To fit one kind of computer
  13. IC
    • Intergrated Circuits
    • Is an elsctronic divice consisting of many miniature transistors other circuit elements cresistors and capacitors eta
  14. DIPS
    Dual Inline Pins
  15. Clock
    • Are used to set the pace for all activities inside the computer. One pulse of a clock is consider a clock cycle. The clock provides a beat for all the individual components to follow:
    • There is two clocks
    • One controls the CPU
    • Second controls the external data
  16. SIPPS
    Single Inline Pin Package
  17. SIMM
    • Single Inline Memory Modules
    • a type of SDRAM
  18. DIMM
    • Dual Inline Memory Module
    • a type of SDRAM
  19. SO-DIMM
    • Small outline DIMM
    • Are designed to be used in notebook or laptop
  20. C.P.U
    • Central Processing Unit
    • aka Brain of the computer
  21. Heat Sinks
    Is used to draw heat away from certain components that normally get hot
  22. SRAM
    • Static Random Access Memory aka PC Memory
    • information is stored until it is changed or power is removed
    • is the fastest memory
    • 6 cross - coupled transisters to latch the data so that is cannot drain off
    • expensive and 30 times bigger
  23. RIMM
    • Rambus Inline memory
    • type of SDRAM
  24. SDRAM
    • Synchronous, Dynamic, RAM
    • sychronized with the speed of the bus which speeds up data-reader and data writes
    • can't mix without the memory and the mother board chip-set must support SDRAM
    • three types of SDRAM: SIMM, DIMM, RIMM
  25. SDR
    Single Data Rate
    • Double Data Rate SDRAM
    • it transfers data at double the speed of SDRAM
  27. DDR2
    • designed to transfer data a half the clock rate of DDR memory
    • it moves data at 4 times the speed of SDRAM
  28. DDR3
    • moves memory 8 times the speed of SDRAM
    • also reducing the power by 30%
  29. RDRAM
    • Dynamic Random Access Memory- PC memory
    • Lose the information that was after a short period of time.
    • Only one transfer/capaciter combination is required for each bit of memory.
    • Slow because spends time keeping the data "charged level" stored in the memory is refresed 128 times per second
  30. ROM
    • Read Only Memory
    • holds the data that the computer uses to start or boot
    • used for BIOS
    • cannot change what is already writtened
  31. EPROM
    • Erasable Programmable Ready Only Memory
    • erases the original data and program new data into the IC
  32. PROM
    • Programmable Ready Only Memory
    • the data can be permanently programmed into the IC
  33. EEPROM
    • Electronically Erasable PROM
    • allows you to run a program at the computer to erase the PROM and program new data
  34. L1 cashe
    • Internal or Integral cashe
    • it is the fastes memory in the computer because it runs at the speed of the processor
    • it is intergrated into the processor
  35. L2 cashe
    • the second fastest memory in the computer
    • it is called the external cashe because it is external to the processor
  36. Cache
    • Temporary memory stored within the CPU
    • ex. video processor, audio processor, super I/O controller, GMCH and ICH
    • fast
    • 2 types of cashe L1 and L2
  37. RAM
    • Random Access Memory
    • able to random and write at will