Chapter 3 Biological Aspects of Psych

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Chapter 3 Biological Aspects of Psych
2012-01-19 03:24:36

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  1. ´╗┐´╗┐Forebrain
    the most highly developed part of the brain; it is responsible for the most complex aspects of behavior and mental life
  2. Thalamus
    A forebrain structure that relays signals from most sense organs to higher levels in the brain and plays an important role in processing and making sense out of this position
  3. Hypothalamus
    A structure in the forebrain that regulates hunger, thirst, and sex drives
  4. Suprachiasmatic nuclei
    Nuclei in the hypothalamus that generates biological rythms
  5. amygdala
    A structure in the forebrain that, amung other things, associates features of stimuli from two sensory modalities
  6. Hippocampus
    A structure in the forebrain associated with the formation of new memories
  7. Limbic system
    a set of brain structures that play important roles in repulating emotion and memory
  8. Pons
    triggers dreaming and waking up from sleeping
  9. Cerebellum
    coordinates body movements, controls posture, maintains equilibrium, and learned associations that involve movement
  10. Reticular Formation
    A network of cells and fibers threded throughout the hindbrain that alters the activity of the rest of the brain
  11. Medulla
    center for breathing, waking, sleeping, and beating of the heart
  12. Frontal Lobe
    assists in motor skills and cognitive abilities, such as planning, making decisions, setting goals, and relating the present to the future through purposeful behavior
  13. Occipital Lobe
    process visual information and passes its conclution to the pariential and temporal lobe
  14. Parietal Lobe
    assists in sensory processes, spatial-interpretation, attention, language
  15. Temporal lobe
    assists auditory preception, language comprehention, and visual recognition
  16. Warnicke's Area
    are of the brain deals with reading, and may hold the key to treating dyslexia. Writtern and spoken language comprehention
  17. Association Area
    area of the brain deals with memory
  18. Pons and Riticular formation
    areas of the brain play a major role in sleep and wakeflness
  19. Cerebrum
    Coordinates movement and learned rote movement
  20. Broca's area
    Muscles of speech
  21. Olfactory Area
  22. Emotional Area
    Pain; hunger; "fight or flight" response
  23. Somatosensory Association Area
    Evaluation of weight, texture, temperature for object recognition
  24. Trigeminal
    Facial Sensation
  25. Accessory
    control of Neck and shoulder muscle
  26. Hypoglossal
    tongue movement
  27. Amygdala
  28. Central Nervous System
  29. cerebellum
  30. Cerebral Cortex
  31. Cervical Region
  32. Corpus Callosum
  33. Forebrain
  34. Hippocampus
  35. Hypothalamus
  36. Locus Coerulus
  37. Lumbar Region
  38. Medulla
  39. Midbrain
  40. Peripheral Nervous System
  41. reticular formation
  42. septum region
  43. Spinal Cord
  44. Straitum
  45. thalamus
  46. thoracic region
  47. Locus coeruleus
    a small nucleus in the reticular formation involved in attention, sleep, and mood
  48. midbrain
    a small structure between the hindbrain that relays information from the eyes, eays, and skin and that controls certain types of automatic behaviors
  49. straitum
    a structure within the forebrain that is involved in the smooth initiation of movement
  50. nervous system
    a complex combination of cells whose primare function is to allow an organism to gain information about what is going on inside and outside the body and to respond appropriately
  51. neuron
    fundamental unit of the nervous system; nerve cell. rapidly respond to signals and quickly send signals of their own
  52. glial cells
    cell in the nervous system thatholds nuerons together and helps them communicate with one another
  53. axon
    a nueron fiber that carries signals from the body of a neuron out to where comunication occurs with other neurons \
  54. dentrite
    a neuron fiber that receives signals from the axons of other neurons and carries those signals to the cell body
  55. synapse
    the tiny gap between neurons across which they communicate
  56. action poitential
    an abrupt wave of electronchemical changes traveling down an axon when a neuron becomes depolarized
  57. myelin
    a fatty substnace that wraps around some axons and increases the speed of action potential
  58. refactory period
    a short rest period between action potentials
  59. neurotransmiter
    chemical that assists in the transfer of signals from one neuron to another
  60. receptor
    site on the surface of a cell allows only one type of neurotransmitter to fit into it, triggering a chemical response that may lead to an action potential
  61. postsynaptic potential
    the change in the membrane potential of a neuron that has recieved stimulation from another neuron
  62. excitatory postsynaptic potetial
    the change in the membrane potential of a neuron that has received stimulation from another neruron
  63. inhibitroy postsynaptic potential
    a postsynaptic potential that hyperpolarizes the neruonal membrane, making a cell less likely to fire an action potential
  64. somatic nervous system
    the subsystem of the peripheral nervous system that transmits information from the senses to the central nervous system and carries signals from the central nervous system to the muscles
  65. automic nervous system
    the subsystem of the peripheral nervous system that carries messages between the central nervous system and the heart, lungs, and other organs and glands
  66. nuclei
    collection of nerve cells bodies in the central nervous system
  67. fiber tracts
    axons in the central nervous system that travel together in bundles
  68. spinal cords
    the part of the central nervous system within the spinal column that relays signals from peripheral sense to the brain and coveys messages from the brain to the rest of the body
  69. reflex
    involuntary, unlearned reaction in the form of swift, automatic and finely coordinated movements in response to external stimuli
  70. lateralized
    referring to the tendency for one cerebral hemisphere to excel at a particular function or skill compared with the other hemisphere
  71. plasticity
    the ability to create new synapses and to change the strength of synapses
  72. nerutransmitter system
    a group of neurons that communicates by using the same neurotransmitter
  73. acetylcholine
    a neurotransmitter used by neurons in the peripheral and central nervous systems in the control of functions ranging from muscle contraction and heart rate to digestion and memory
  74. norepinephrine
    a neurotransmitter involved in arousal, as well as in learning and mood regulation
  75. serotonin
    a neurotransmitter used by cells in parts of the brain involved in the regulation of sleep, mood, and eating
  76. dopamine
    a neurotransmitter used in the parts of the brain involved in regulating movement and experiening pleasure
  77. GABA
    a neurotransmitter that inhibits the firing of neurons
  78. gltamate
    an excitatory neurotransmitter that helps strengthen synaptic connections between neurons
  79. endorphin
    one of a class of newurotransmitters that bind to opeate receptrors and moderate pain
  80. endocrine
    cells that form oprgans called glands and that communicate with one another by secreting chemicals called hormones
  81. gland
    an organ that secretes hormones into the bloodstream
  82. hormone
    chemical secreted by a gland into the bloodstream, which carries it throughout the body
  83. fight-or-flight syndrome
    physical reaction initiated by the sympathetic nervous system that prepares the body to fight or to run from a threatening situation
  84. immune system
    the body;s system of defense against invading substances and microorganisms
  85. autoimmune system
    physical problems caused when cells of the body's immune system attack normal body cells as if they were foreign invaders
  86. graves disease
    excess thyroid secretions. nervousness, tremers, hunger, heart palpitations, weight loss, swollen neck
  87. hypothyroidism
    lack of iodine. sleepiness, eating problems, physical and mental impairment, and deafness, sluggishness, weight gain, and lowed body ability
  88. parathyroid glands
    excess parathyroid secretions cause calcium loss and bone softening
  89. Addison's disease
    adrenal insufficiency causes skin darkening, weight loss, and dizziness
  90. Cushing's disease
    excess adrenal cotrtex horomones cause arm and leg muscel weakness; are and leg muscle weakness, decreased bone, thick and easily bruised skin