Unit 1

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Unit 1
2012-01-09 21:49:49
anatomy 200 unit terms

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  1. Histology
    microscopic study of cells and tissues
  2. Gross Anatomy
    the study of large (gross) structures that can be seen with the naked eye
  3. tissue
    groups of cells that are similar in structure and that function together
  4. four primary uses of tissue
    • epithelial
    • connective
    • muscle
    • nerve
  5. epithelial
    forms the linings and coverings of free surfaces of the body
  6. Connecctive
    • Fascia - binds tissues of body
    • aponeurosis - thick condensed sheet of fascia
    • ligaments - thick connective tissue bone to bone in joints
    • tendons - muscle to bone
    • bone, cartilage
  7. connective
    • supportive and binding tissue found throughout the body
    • ie: bone, tendons, cartilage
  8. muscle
    contractile tissue for movement
  9. nerve
    communication cells capeable of sending impulses
  10. organ
    • groups of tissues that work together to perform a common function
    • ie: heart, lungs, kidneys, liver
  11. system
    • a group of organs working together to perform a common function
    • ie: circulatory, respiratory, urinary
  12. neuroanatomy
    study of the structure of the nervous system
  13. embryology
    study of the developing organism from the time of fertilization to birth
  14. germ cell layers
    • three layers of embryonic tissue from which all body tissues are derived
    • endoderm, ectoderm, mesoderm
  15. endoderm
    innermost of three germ cell layers, it will form most of the linings of tubular structures of the body
  16. ectoderm
    • outer germ cell layer
    • derivatives: skin and the nervous system
  17. mesoderm
    • layer between the endoderm and the ectoderm
    • derivitaves: muscles and connective tissues
  18. fascia
    compact layers of connective tissue that form a fibrous membrane. It invests the whole body, supporting and separating muscles and organs
  19. collagen
    the major protein of the fibers in connective tissue structures
  20. ligaments
    thickened connective tissue (collagen fibers), which serves to hold bones together
  21. tendons
    thickened, dense connective tissue that holds muscle to bone
  22. aponeurosis
    a broad flat tendon
  23. regional study
    • all the structures in an area are studied together
    • ie: lower extremity includes bones, muscles, nerves, and vessels
  24. systematic (systemic) study
    • studying a complete system independent of region
    • ie: learning all the bones of the body
  25. anatomic position
    the body is standing erect, face toward observer, with feet together and parallel, the arms at the sides and palms directed forward
  26. anterior
    • ventral
    • refers to the from surface of the body
  27. posterior
    • dorsal
    • refers to the back surface of the body
  28. superior
    • cranial
    • near the head end
  29. inferior
    • caudal
    • farther from the head end
  30. superficial
    • external
    • nearer the surface
  31. deep
    • internal
    • farther from the surface
  32. medial
    nearer the mid plane of the body
  33. lateral
    farther from the mid plane of the body
  34. proximal
    nearest the point of origin. If used with extremities, closer to the attachment. If used with an organ, closer to the organ.
  35. distal
    farthest from point of origin
  36. median plane
    • midsagittal
    • a vertical plane that divides the body into right and left halves
  37. sagittal plane
    a vertical plane parallel to the median plane
  38. coronal plane
    • frontal
    • a vertical plane at right angles to the median plane. It divides the body into anterior and posterior portions.
  39. transverse plane
    a horizontal plane at right angles to both the median and frontal planes. It cuts the body into superior and inferior portions