flashcards_141101 (1).txt

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flashcards_141101 (1).txt
2012-01-09 22:43:05

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  1. Abstract Model 
     representations, usually mathemtaical in nature, of a real item. Typically developed for use in analysis.
  2. Accuracy 
     the closeness to truth
  3. Added Value 
     the outcome of making improvements to a product or system in such a way as to make it more valuable to the customer
  4. Administrative Controls 
     attempt to minimize exposure, implement proper housekeeping practices, and devise appropriate worker training
  5. Agreement 
     a situation in which everyone on a team accepts and fully supports a decision
  6. Algorithm 
     a step-by-step procedure for solving a problem or accomplishing some end especially by a computer
  7. Analogies 
     parallel, but not similar situations that can be used to illustrate or explain one another
  8. Analysis 
     the detailed assessment of the performance of an engineering design, usually based on mathematical models
  9. Approximations 
     simplifications of complex behaviours that permit a situation to be assessed and analyzed within the powers of the design tools that we have available
  10. Aquifer 
     a water-bearing stratum of permeable rock, sand, or gravel
  11. Assumptions 
     "information" that forms the basis of creative designs. used in the absense of known fact and subject to revision once the situation becomes more clearly defined
  12. Axiom 
     a truth that cannot be derived but for which there are no counterexamples or exceptions
  13. Belief 
     "information" that is founded on faith, or unprovable conviction 
  14. Best Practice 
     a design approach, based primarily on experience, that is considered best for the particular circumstance
  15. Biases 
     inclinations, either recognized or unconcious, that can rise out of past experience
  16. Black Box 
     a component of a system which accepts inputs and produces outputs while the functioning within the component is unknown
  17. Brainstorming 
     a free-for-all approach to developing ideas for problem solution. normally used in the context of developing concepts
  18. Codes 
     documents that define minimum standards, normally under force of law, for the performance of an engineering design
  19. Codes of Ethics 
     documents, either legal or voluntary compliance, that define expectations for the behaviour of a professional
  20. Comunication 
     exchange of information in graphic, written or spoken form. a case of both "sending" and "recieving" messages
  21. Concept 
     an idea. within the design context, conceptual design is the preliminary stage in which ideas are assembled in a general way, prior to any assessment or analysis
  22. Consensus 
     a situation in which everyone on a team is willing to stand behind a decision
  23. Constraints 
     limitations imposed on an undertaking. may be of physical, financial, political, legal, technical, environmental, ethical, or any other origin
  24. Cost-Benefit 
     a comparison of benefits gained versus costs incurred
  25. Creativity 
     bringing into existence new and different solutions to problems, regardless of the nature of the problem
  26. Critical Path Method (CPM) 
     a PERT type approach developed in the mid 20th century by DuPont
  27. Critique 
     an assessment of work, usually for the purpose of identifying potential improvements, unintended oversights, or undesirable characteristics of the work
  28. Data 
     specific information, often numerical and founded on experiments, that is used in design.
  29. Defeatibility Resistance 
     reasonably forseeable misuse of the product is considered
  30. Design 
     a systematic process of developing a workable solution to a practical problem. involves, at minimum, creativity, analysis, communication, and technical competence
  31. Design Goals 
     objectives which a particular design is intended to meet. will have a major impact on the ultimate product
  32. Design Team 
     a group of individuals, each with a particular set of competencies, who work together to create a final design that meets the design goals for a project
  33. Drawing 
     a representation of some physical thing. in engineering, usually done with some level of precision and using either electronic or drafting "tools"
  34. Durability 
     the ability of a product to remain funcitonal under long term use
  35. Emergency Shut-Off Devices 
     aloows the immediate stopping of a machine once a person, or other foreign object, becomes caught by the machine
  36. Empirical 
     originating in or based on observation or experience
  37. Engineering Controls 
     passive measures designed into the work environment to prevent contact with potential hazards
  38. Environmental Protection 
     the process of assuring that the results of our designs do not have negative impact on the natural environment
  39. Evaluation 
     assessing the performance of alternate designs against established criteria before selecting the final design
  40. Explicit 
     fully revealed or expressed without vagueness, implication, or ambiguity
  41. Fail-Active Design 
     the product remains energized but in a safe mode until corrective action is taken
  42. Fail-Operational Design 
     product continues to operate with reasonable safety until corrective action is possible
  43. Fail-Passive Design 
     reduces the product to its lowest level of energy so product cannot operate until corrective action is taken
  44. Fail-Safe Designs 
     to ensure that a product failure will not result in damage to people, the product itself, or he environment
  45. Failure 
     at one extreme, the complete collapse of a system or structure. at the other extreme, not functioning as intended. when something is designed and it does not do the job for whatever reason
  46. Failure Minimization 
     minimize the consequences of failure using four principle methods: monitoring devices, warning devices, safety factors and margins, failure rate reduction
  47. Feedback 
     communication from a person who has assessed something to the person who is responsible for creating it
  48. Function 
     the action for which a person or thing is specifically fitted or used or for which a thing exists
  49. Glitch 
     literally a very small spike in voltage in an electrical circuit resulting from a sudden added load. however, thanks to the Mercury astronauts in the early 1960's it came to mean any small, unexpected problem associated with a complex system
  50. Gantt Chart 
     a project management tool that separates a project into specific tasks and assigns timelines to each task
  51. Handbook 
     a document that contains best practice advice respecting a particular product or process. usually available through either manufacturers or trade associations
  52. Heuristic 
     involving or serving as an aid to learning, discovery, or problem-solving by experimental and especially trial-and-error methods, a rule of thumb
  53. Implicit 
     capable of being understood from something else though unexpressed
  54. Innovation 
     a modification of something that exists
  55. Iteration 
     a process of "revisiting" the assumptions and approximations as well as the analysis of a design solution to make changes and improvements that will impact the eventual design
  56. Knowledge 
     "information" that is founded on fact as it is currently understood, or scientifically provable or measurable data
  57. Lateral Thinking  
     a thinking process that allows you to abandon established norms and look at a problem in a completely new and different manner
  58. Limitations 
     a synonym for constraints
  59. Manufacturability 
     the state of being fit to manufacture using processes, materials and skills that are available within "reasonable" cost. the definition of where this line is drawn is highly variable throughout industry
  60. Majority 
     a situation in which a decision is made by a vote and 50% + 1 are in favour of the decision
  61. Minimum Cost 
     the level of cost that meets the dual goals of low price and acceptable performance
  62. Minimum Maintenance 
     a design goal often associated with consumer goods, but at least implied in all "built" systems. lowers the cost of ownership and decreases the probability of premature failure
  63. Models 
     representations of a real item or system. can range from physical scale through dimensionally similar to mathematical representations
  64. Opinionated 
     unduly adhering to one's own opinion or to preconceived notions
  65. Optimizing 
     seeking out the most favourable combination of variables to produce an end product with the best chance of success
  66. Origination 
     something brand new
  67. Passive Protection 
     to provide engineered protection from hazards irrespective of the behaviour of the individuals being protected
  68. Performance 
     the manner in which a design reacts to the conditions imposed by the environment in which it is used
  69. PERT diagram 
     Program Evaluation and Review Technique - a project management tool for large, complex projects that separates the project into specific tasks and assigns both timelines and task interactions. permits assessment of the critical path to project completion
  70. Physical Models 
     "real" models of proposed designs, ranging from full scale to micro scale and from precise representations to test to "test" models that reflect the requirements of similitude
  71. Plurality 
     a situation in which there are more than two alternatives and the largest number of persons, but less than 50%, supports the position being advanced
  72. Precision 
     the fineness of a measurement
  73. Product Reliability Failure 
     failure of parts causing injury
  74. Prototypes 
     first-off, full-scale productions of a new design intended for physical assessment of the product and the associated manufacturing requirements
  75. Redesign 
     the process of reworking an existing product to improve performance and/or correct problems. a normal step in product evolution
  76. Redundancy 
     use of backup systems
  77. Reliability 
     a condition in which one can be confident of the performance of a design or the "correctness" of an assumption or theory
  78. Round-Off 
     the process of reducing a string of numbers, usually produced as the result of a mathematical assessment, to a workable level of precision
  79. Rule-Of-Thumb 
     an accepted process or concept that is used in design
  80. Safety 
     a state of mind. the level of assurance that collapse will not occur, and that persons who use the design will not be placed at undue risk
  81. Significant Figures 
     a level of precision that can be justified based on what is known and what can be controlled within a design
  82. Similitude 
     a mathematical and physical properties based process that is utilized to design physical models that will perform in a manner similar to the full scale version. uncontrollable factors, for example viscosity and friction, impact models differently than real systems
  83. Sketch 
     a freehand drawing aid in illustrating a concept rather than detail
  84. Standard Parts 
     parts that are interchangable among a number of models of a particular line on manufactured products. parts that do not require special manufacturing processes, but are widely available within an industry
  85. Standards
    agreed upon design minimums or or procedures within an industry. normally developed by consensus, but without legal status. often accepted by code writing bodies and incorporated into the code document, thereby altering their legal status
  86. Synthesis
    assembling parts into a functioning system. also considered to be the process of moving from fundamental principles to a functioning application. using performance specifications for individual parts to create a design that has the fewest possible compromises
  87. Tolerances
    the level of accuracy required in manufacturing or construction so that parts will fit and function properly. often seen as +/- measurements associated with dimensions on drawings
  88. Vertical Thinking
    a thought process that follows a logical progression through sequential steps, with each step justified by logic or fact