Pharm - Anti-infective

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Author:
nicstrain
ID:
12692
Filename:
Pharm - Anti-infective
Updated:
2010-04-05 22:41:20
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USMLE
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Description:
Anti-infective drugs
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  1. Primaquine
    • Malaria prophylaxis
    • used for extraerythrocytic forms Plasmodium vivax or P. ovale
  2. Ciporfloxacin
    QUinolone derivative
  3. Sulfonamides
    • PABA structural analogs
    • Inhibit Folic acid synthesis
  4. Tetracyclines, anuria & the exception
    • Should not be used in anuric pt due to production of (-) Nitrogen balance & increased BUN
    • Doxycycline
  5. Ceftriazone
    • 3rd generation cephalosporin
    • DOC for bacterial meningitis in kids (ie...HiB)
    • One dose tx for gonorrhea
  6. Hepatic coma DOC
    Neomycin (aminoglycoside) - it suppresses the normal flora = decreasing NH4 production = decreasing free nitrogen levels in the bloodstream
  7. Clavulanic acid
    Irreversible (-)r of beta lactamases, but ot of transpeptidase = use w/ a beta lactamase sensitive penicillin
  8. Piperacillin
    • Tx Pseudomonas aeruginosa & Klebsiella
    • Broad spectrum antibiotic
  9. Straptomycin (aminoglycoside)
    Tx Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  10. Isoniazid
    • Most commonly used drug for TB
    • Usually combined w/ Rifampin and/or Ethambutol
    • Pre tx w/ Pyridoxine (Vit B6) can prevent peripheral neuritis
  11. Pyrantel Pamoate
    • Tx of Hookworm disease
    • Depolarizing NMJ (-)r
  12. Buy "AT" 30, "CELL" at 50
    • A - Aminoglycosides
    • T - Tetracyclines
    • C - Chloramphenicol
    • E - Erythromycin (macrolide)
    • L - Clindamycin
    • L - Lincomycin
  13. Cefoxitin
    • Tx intra-abdominal infection (ie.. w/ Bacteridoes fragilis)
    • Traditional tx has been Clindamycin and Gentamycin
  14. Chloramphenicol
    • Broad spectrum antibiotic
    • Bone marrow depression (common) - aplastic anemia (rare)
    • Grey baby syndrome (chloramphenicol cannot be conjugated)
    • DOC Typhoid Fever (symptomatic salmonella infection)
    • DOC HiB meningitis in kids = especially resistant strain to ampicillin
  15. Nifurtimax
    Tx trypanosomiasis
  16. Metronidazole
    • Tx Leishmaniasis and Amebiasis
    • Good for anaerobic bacteria = Bacteroides fragilis
    • DOC Trichomoniasis
    • DOC Giardia lamblia
  17. Tx P. carinii
    TMP-SMX & Pentamidine
  18. Tetracycline
    • Tx of Brucellosis & Cholera
    • Tx Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
    • Tx spirochete infections = Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi)
  19. TMP-SMX
    (-) dihydrofolate reductase activity
  20. Benzathine Penicillin G
    Long duration of action = given once every 3-4 weeks for Tx of Syphilis
  21. Praziquantel
    Tx Schistosomiasis (trematode [fluke] infections)
  22. Melarsoprol
    Tx Trypanosomiasis that has neurological symptoms
  23. Stibogluconate
    Tx Leishmaniasis
  24. Fluconazole
    Tx fungal encephalitis
  25. Amphotericin B
    Polyene antifungal
  26. Ketoconazole MOA
    (-) fungal ergosterol synthesis = disrupts membranes
  27. Griseofulvin MOA
    Accumulates in keratinized layers of skin = used in dermatomycoses infections
  28. Mefloquine
    • Anti malarial
    • Tx Chloroquine resistant strains = P. falciparum
  29. Chloroquine
    Tx for Malaria when inside RBC
  30. Nifurtimax
    DOC Chagas disease due to Trypanosoma cruzi
  31. Erythromycin
    Used in pts allergic to penicillin
  32. Nystatin
    Topical tx of superficial mycotic infection = Candidiasis
  33. Acyclovir
    • Guanine analog
    • Tx Herpes infection
  34. Imipenem
    • Used w/ Cilastatin
    • Can cause seizures
  35. Cefoperazone side effects
    • Bleeding due to vit K level alterations
    • Contraindicated in pts w/ bleeding disorders
  36. Vancomycin
    • Used for MRSA
    • "red neck" due to histamine release causes focal flushing
  37. Meropenem
    • Used w/ Cilastatin
    • Does not cause seizures (cf w/ Imipenem)
  38. Nafcillin
    Only penicillin that does not need dose adjustment in renal impairment
  39. Peripheral neuropathy
    • Seen w/ use of....
    • Metronidazole - Isoniazid - Vincristine - ddI - AZT - Allopurinol
  40. Sulfonamides and newborns
    Kernicterus can occur
  41. "O.N.E" for gonorrhea
    • Fluoroquinolones used in a one dose deal for gonorrhea
    • O = Ofloxacin
    • N = Norfloxacin
    • E = Enoxacin
  42. Ribavirin
    Tx for RSV

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