Bio 4.txt

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  1. Cell theory
    • Living things are made of cells
    • Cell is the unit of life
    • Cells come from preexisting cells
    • Contain hereditary information
    • Chemically the same
    • Energy flows within cells
  2. Plasma membrane
    • Flexible boundary between the cell and the environment
    • Selectively permeable
  3. Prokaryotic cells
    • Domains Bacteria and Archaea
    • Smaller size
    • Simpler structure
  4. Eukaryotic cells
    • Domain Eukarya (animalia, plantae, protists, fungi)
    • More complex
    • Larger cells
  5. Chromosomes
    Carry genes made of DNA
  6. Ribosomes
    Tiny structures that make proteins
  7. Cytoplasm
    • The interior of the cell
    • In eukaryotic cells doesn't include the nucleus
  8. Flagella
    Long projection that propels prokaryotic cells through liquid environments
  9. Organelles
    Little organs inside a cell that perform specific functions
  10. Cellular metabolism
    • Chemical activities of the cell
    • Happen mostly in organelles
  11. Nucleus
    • Contains cell DNA
    • Controls cell activity through protein synthesis
  12. Chromatin
    • Loose chromosomes
    • Seen when cell isn't dividing
    • A diffuse mass
  13. Nuclear envelope
    • Double membrane surrounded the nucleus
    • perforated to release mRNA
  14. Nucleolus
    Produces rRNA to synthesize ribosomes
  15. Endomembrane system
    • Rough ER
    • Smooth ER
    • Golgi apparatus
    • Lysosomes
    • Vacuoles
    • Vesicles
    • Membranes in a cell that work together
  16. Vesicles
    • Sacs made of membrane
    • Transfer membrane segments
  17. Endoplasmic reticulum
    • Flattened sacs and tubules
    • Continuous with nuclear envelopes
    • 2 types-smooth and rough
  18. Smooth ER
    • Lacks attached ribosomes
    • Synthesizes lipids
    • Detoxifies cells
  19. Rough ER
    • Ribosomes stud the outside
    • Make more membrane
  20. Golgi apparatus
    • Stack of flattened sacs
    • Correlates with protein secretion
    • Molecular warehouse and finishing factory
  21. Lysosome
    Membranous sac of digestive enzymes
  22. Vacuoles
    • Large vesicles
    • Food vacuole: digests food
    • Contractile vacuoles: take in water then expel it
    • Central vacuole: plant cells grow by absorbing water
  23. Peroxisomes
    • Metabolic compartments not from the endomembrane system
    • Break down fatty acids, detoxify compounds, produce hydrogen peroxide
  24. Mitochondria
    • Organelles that carry out cellular respiration in most eukaryotic cells
    • Converts sugar to ATP
  25. Mitochondrial matrix
    • Enclosed in second membrane
    • Contains mitochondrial DNA and ribosomes
  26. Cristae
    Folds in the inner membrane that increase the surface area and ability to produce ATP
  27. Chloroplasts
    Photosynthesizing organelles-solar power system
  28. Stroma
    • Thick fluid in the inner membrane of the chloroplasts
    • Where Calvin Cycle occurs
  29. Thylakoids
    • Network of interconnected sacs
    • Light dependent reactions take place
  30. Granum
    • Each stack of thylakoids
    • Plural grana
  31. Endosymbiont theory
    Mitochondria and chloroplasts were formerly small prokaryotes that started living inside larger cells for convenience
  32. Cytoskeleton
    • Protein fibers extended throughout the cytoplasm
    • Fibers give support to the shape and help the cell move
  33. Microfilaments
    • Solid rods composed of actin arranged in a double chain
    • Support cell's shape
  34. Intermediate filaments
    • Fibrous proteins that coil into thick cables
    • Anchor organelles and hold the shape
  35. Microtubules
    • Straight hollow tubes made of tubulins
    • Support/shape the cell and allow organelles to move around
  36. Cilia
    Short numerous appendages that help protists move
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Bio 4.txt
biology chapter 4
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