A: Inflammatory disease of the kidney following Strep pharyngitis or skin infection. Due to deposition of antigen-antibody complexes: Puffy face. Dark urine (hematuria and proteinuria)'. Hypervolumia which can cause high BP.
Q: Viridans Group Strep?
A: G+ and Catalase - and a-hemolytic -green-. Dental Infections -caries-. Endocarditis -subacute-. Abscesses.
Q: Strep Intermedius?
A: Subgroup of Viridans Strep that causes abscesses.
A: G+ and catalase - and a-hemolytic. Normal bowel flora. Common in UTIs. Biliary infections. Subacute endocarditis. Not as virulent as Strep A. Opportunistic. Common cause of nosocomial infections. Resistant to many antibiotics, some even vancomycin.
Q: Streptococcus pneumoniae?
A: G+ and catalase - and a-hemolytic -. Lancet-shaped Diplococci. Pneumonia. Meningitis in adults. Otitis media in kids.
Q: Pneumococcal pneumonia?
A: high fever. Rigors. cp with respirations. sob. In lungs - pus and bacteria and exudates.
Q: Staphylococcus Aureus?
A: G+ and catalase + and B-hemolytic. gold pigment. In clusters. coagulase +. Scalded skin syndrome. Toxic shock syndrome. Gastroenteritis. Pneumonia. Meningitis and Brain abscess. Osteomyelitis. Acute endocarditis. Septic arthritis. Skin infections. Wound infections.
Q: Staph enzymes that disable our immune defenses?
A: Protein A: Binds the Fc part of IgG. Coagulase leads to fibrin clot around bacteria, protecting it. Hemolysins destroy RBCs, neutrophils, macrophages, and platelets. Leukocidins destroy WBCs. Penicillinase inactivates penicillin.
Q: Staph proteins that help it tunnel through tissue?
A: Hyalurodinase: Breaks down proteoglycans in CT. Staphylokinase: Lyses fibrin clots. Lipase: Degrades fats.
A: Staph and Strep A. Shock. Renal failure. Rash. Respiratory Failure.
Q: Group C-G Strep?
A: G+ and Catalase - and B-hemolytic. Can cause purulent infections like Strep A but no Rheumatic Fever or glomerulonephritis.
Q: Bacterimia of which critter is associated with colon cancer?
A: Strep D.
Q: Which Streps are associated with abscesses?
A: Group F Strep milleri and Viridans group Strep intermedias.
Q: 5 bacteria associated with food poisoning?
A: Staph Aureus and Listeria monocytogenes and Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium perfringens and Bacillus cereus.
Q: Listeria monocytogenes?
A: G+ and Catalase + and B-hemolytic. Rods in pairs. Aerobic. Transmission from meat product. Bacterimia and meningitis in newborns. Likely to have obtained from birth canal. Common cause of food borne outbreaks and meat recalls.
Q: How do you diagnose Listeria in the lab?
A: Culture blood or CSF and B-hemolytic then not cornebacteria and Catalase + then not Strep B.
A: Also called diptheroids. G+ and rods forming Chinese character clusters. Large numbers on normal skin flora. Most often contaminants in culture. Assumed to be cause of the disease only if in 2 samples. Endocarditis in prosthetic heart valves.
A: Pharyngitis with thick membrane and edema. May have cutaneous ulcers. When contains a bacteriophage produces exotoxin that effect myocardium and peripheral nervous system. Death by asphyxiation or myocarditis.
Q: Aerobic Gram + Bacilli?
A: Listeria monocytogenes and Corynebacterium and Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae and Bacillus and Lactobacillus.
Q: Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae?
A: G+ and rods that form long filaments and a-hemolytic. Produces hydrogen sulfide gas (unique among aerobic G+). Colonizes animals and causes infections in fisherman, butchers, and veterinarians. erysipeloid: ulcerating, erythematous skin infections.
Q: Bacillus species?
A: G+ and large rods. Form spores (unique among aerobic G+). Bacterimia and endocarditis in drug abusers and immune compromised. B. anthracis and B. cereus.
Q: Bacillus anthracis?
A: Large G+ rods. Rare in US but common elsewhere else. 3 forms: 1) cutaneous: painless ulcer with black eschar 2) inhalation: spore forming, severe SOB, appearance of extreme toxicity, and widened medistinum 3) GI form - deadly.
Q: Bacillus cereus?
A: Commonly causes food poisoning. Associated with under cooked rice. Toxin mediated.
A: G+ and catalase - and a-hemolytic and small long slender rods. Major normal flora of GI tract and genital tract. Found in yogurt. Virtually always protective against infection.
Q: Anaerobic Gram + Bacilli?
A: Clostridium perfringes and Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium tetani and Clostridium difficiles and Propionibacterium and acnes.
Q: Clostridium perfringens?
A: G+ and large rods and spore forming. Gas gangrene. Necrotizing Fasciitis. Cellulitis. Puerperal sepsis. Food poisoning.
Q: Gas gangrene?
A: Clostidium perfringens. Rare. Rapidly progressing. Traumatic and surgical wounds. Destruction of muscle. Gas in tissue. Hemorrhagic bullae. Foul watery discharge. Liver and Renal failure. Shock and Death.
Q: Necrotizing fasciitis?
A: Clostridium perfringens. Strep A. Mixed aerobic and anaerobic. Doesn't involve muscle, more local, less lethal than gas gangrene.
Q: Clostridium tetani?
A: G+ and large rods and spore forming. In soil, Common component of GI flora. Tetanospasmin toxin. Causes paralysis that is spastic. Fever. Difficulty swallowing.
Q: Closridium botulinum?
A: G+ and large rods and spore forming. Common in soil. 8 toxins so no vaccine (bacteriophage required for production). Food poisoning. Wounds. Infections. Infant botulism.
Q: Clinical manifestations of food-borne botulism?
A: generalized weakness, dry mouth, constipation, and urinary retention. Followed by descending paralysis, blurred vision, photophobia, dilated unreactive pupils.
Q: Wound botulism?
A: Lesions appear 4 to 14 days after injury. similar clinical manifestations as food-bourn disease.
Q: Infant botulism?
A: 3 to 20 week old infants. Constipation, weak suck, feeble cry, descending flaccidity, ptosis, absent gag reflex. seen in adults.
Q: Clostridium difficile?
A: G+ and large rods and spore forming. GI flora, under antibiotic pressure makes toxins. psuedomembranous colitis. Fever. Diarrhea. ABD pain. Exudate and ulcer formation in large intestine. Failure to recognize and treat may lead to bowel perforation and peritonitis.
Q: Propionibacterium acne?
A: Prominent normal skin flora. Common contaminant. Infections in prosthetic devices (CNS shunts). Acne.
Q: Characteristics of Enterobacteriacea?
A: Gram - Large bacilli. aerobic or anaerobic. do NOT form spores. produce endotoxins. live in lower GI tract.