AY2004 Glossary

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Anonymous
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126941
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AY2004 Glossary
Updated:
2012-01-10 09:48:25
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archaeology
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Glossary
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  1. ACCULTURATION
    An exchange of cultural features when groups come into firsthand contact and where the cultural groups remain distinct.
  2. ASSIMILATION
    A process of INTEGRATION in where members of one ethnic community (usually a minority) are ‘absorbed’ into another and where distinct cultural identities are lost.
  3. COLONIALISM
    The establishment, maintenance, acquisition and expansion of colonies in one territory by people from another territory. The right to define, write history, and ‘civilise’. A wider concept than COLONISATION, and takes place over a much longer period of time.
  4. COLONISATION
    The settling of a new area. Occurs whenever any one or more species populate an area, and therefore could be plants.
  5. CONTACT ARCHAEOLOGY
    The end of PROTO-HISTORIC TIME.
  6. CREOLE
    A language that has its origin in extended contact between two language communities, one of which is generally European. It incorporates features from each and constitutes the mother tongue of a community. Similar to HYBRIDISM.
  7. CULTURE CONTACT
    • - Exchange/Trade: of material culture and ideas
    • - Marriage: introduction of new social practices
    • - Conflict: requiring/resulting in new social and cultural strategies
    • - Colonisation: unequal circumstances of domination
  8. ETHNOGENESIS
    A dynamic process by which a people understand themselves to be ethnically distinct. Does not require a biological root, instead ethnic groups are ‘culturally constructed’.
  9. HYBRIDISM
    A mixture of material cultures, often used for pre-historic cultures. Similar to CREOLE.
  10. INTEGRATION
    The action of incorporating a racial or religious group, or any other behaviours from a foreign culture, into a community.
  11. INTERACTION SPHERE
    A cultural, economic, and information exchange network linking several cultures.
  12. PREHISTORY
    The period of human history preceding written records.
  13. PROTO-HISTORIC TIME
    A time when native Indians had contact with European goods, but not European people.
  14. ROMANIZATION
    An umbrella term for the different cultural processes (including ACCULTURATION, INTEGRATION, and ASSIMILATION) that cultures underwent as they were incorporated into the Roman Empire. In different places Roman culture was accepted in very different ways, some willing, some resistant, and some creating a mix of the two cultures (HYBRIDISM).
  15. SYNCRETISM
    Combination (or attempted combination) of characteristic teachings, beliefs, or practices of one culture into another. Usually associated with religion.

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