A: Causes pharyngitis with thick leathery gray membrane with surrounding edema. Membrane can cause asphyxiation or myocarditis by toxin it exudes.
Q: Diptheria diagnosis
A: Throat culture shows growth on Loeffler or Tinsdale agar, methylene blue stain shows metachromatic granules
Q: Small gram (+) rods that form long filaments, alpha hemolytic, produces hydrogen sulfide gas
A: Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae
Q: Erysipelothrix Clinical Significance
A: Causes ulcerating, erythematous skin infections called erysipeloid on exposed abraided skin (fishermen, butchers)
Q: Large, aerobic, beta hemolytic, irregular colonies of gram (+) rods that form spores
Q: Where is bacillus found
Q: Bacillus Clinical Significance
A: Can cause bacteremia and endocarditis.
Q: Bacillus cereus
A: Food poisoning in rice, problem is with toxin.
Q: Bacillus anthracis
A: Causes anthrax
Q: Three forms of anthrax
A: 1)Cutaneous- a nonpainful ulcer with black eschar in middle 2)Inhalation- Most problematic, severe shortness of breath and extreme toxicity with widened mediastinum. 3)Gastrointestinal: rare;bloody diarrhea and ab pain.
A: Clostridium perfringens. Rare, rapidly progressive infection in traumatic and surgical wounds. Destruction of muscle, gas in tissue. Mediated by production of toxin. liver and renal failure, shock and death unles debrided. Little inflammation.
Q: What is Necrotizing fasciitis or cellulitis
A: Mixed aerobic, anerobic infection in traumatized or poorly vascularized tissue. Muscle not involved. Local and less lethal. Marked inflammation.
Q: What is Puerperal sepsis
A: Caused by C. Perfringens. Necrosis of uterus with bacteremia and intravascular hemolysis following incomplete abortion.
Q: Clostridium tetani basics
A: Found in nature and GI tract. Vegetative form easily killed but spore must be killed at high temp.
Q: Clostridium tetani method of action
A: Spore gets into wound and becomes vegetative. Toxin Tetanospasmin inhibits postsynaptic reflexes.
Q: Clostridium tetani Clinical Significance
A: Causes trismus (lock jaw), stiff neck, difficulty swallowing, rigidity of ab muscles and fever.
Q: C. Botulinum Basics
A: Found in soil. Eight known toxins but require bacteriophage to be produced.
Q: Manifestations of Food-Borne botulism
A: General weakness, malaise, and dissiness, dry mouth, constipation, and urinary retention. Can progress onto worse symptoms
Q: Manifestations of Wound botulism
A: Innocuous lesions 4 - 14 days after injury. Symptoms follow food-borne.