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2010-03-31 16:59:53
Micro overview

Review cards
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  1. Q: Growth of organism in host
    A: Infection
  2. Q: Pathogen
    A: Microorganism capable of producing an infectious disease
  3. Q: Virulence
    A: Degree of Pathogenicity
  4. Q: Normal Flora
    A: Organism Normally present on body surfaces or lumens. They don't usually cause disease unless barrier is breached.
  5. Q: Opportunistic Infection
    A: Usually caused by organism with low virulence. Requires abnormal situation such as suppressed immune response on behalf of host.
  6. Q: Carrier State
    A: Having Pathogen but no symptoms
  7. Q: Iatrogenic
    A: Infectious disease transmitted by healthcare professional or medical proceedure.
  8. Q: Temperature accuracy
    A: ear < oral < rectal
  9. Q: Normal temperature range
    A: 97-99 F
  10. Q: Danger temperature ranges
    A: <94, >105
  11. Q: Intermittent Fever Pattern
    A: Wide Swings with return to normal. Seen with wintermittent antipyretics, abcesses, focal baterial infections
  12. Q: Colonization
    A: The onset of organisms present as asymptomatic infection and may be the first step in development of infection.
  13. Q: Sustained Fever Pattern
    A: Persistant
  14. Q: Relapsing Fever Pattern
    A: Fever alternating with normal temperature over days. Brucella, Colorado Tick Fever, malaria.
  15. Q: Temp-Pulse Disparity
    A: Low pulse for given temp. Brucella, Salmonella, Typhoid.
  16. Q: Spontaneous Mutation Rate
    A: 10^-6 to 10^-11
  17. Q: Transformation
    A: The direct modification of a genotype by the external application of naked DNA from a cell of a different genotype.
  18. Q: Transduction
    A: The movement of gens from a bacterial donor to a bacterial recipiennt using a phage as the vector.
  19. Q: Conjugation
    A: The union of two bacterial cells during which chromosomal or plasmid is transferred from donor to recipient using pilus. Most common.
  20. Q: Transposition
    A: The relocation of a chromosomal segment to a different location in the genome.
  21. Q: Gram (+) cocci, in clusters, catalase (+)
    A: Staphlococci
  22. Q: Coagulase (+) staphlococci
    A: S. aureus
  23. Q: Common cause of catheter infection
    A: Coagulase negative staph
  24. Q: Scalded skin syndrome
    A: exfoliatin toxin; superficial infection, usu. not sick.
  25. Q: Toxic Shock Syndrome
    A: TSST-1 toxin; diffuse skin rash, blanches
  26. Q: Food Poisoning
    A: enterotoxin A-E
  27. Q: Staph. saprophytious
    A: UTI
  28. Q: 3 Clinical Manifestation of Staph
    A: 1)Suppurative, 2)Toxin Mediated 3) Device related
  29. Q: Coagulase
    A: From Staph, clots plasma
  30. Q: Alpha, Beta, and Gamma Hemolysins
    A: From Staph; Lyses RBCs
  31. Q: Leukocidin
    A: From staph; Kills WBC
  32. Q: Enterotoxins
    A: From staph; food poisoning
  33. Q: Gram (+) cocci in chains or pairs, Catalase (-)
    A: Streptococci
  34. Q: Alpha Hemolysis
    A: partial or greening hemolysis
  35. Q: Beta Hemolysis
    A: Complete hemolysis
  36. Q: Gamma Hemolysis
    A: No hemolysis
  37. Q: Beta Strep Lancefield Groups
    A: A,B,C,D,F,G
  38. Q: Group A Strep (S. Pyogenes)
    A: Causes purulent infections, strep throat, skin infections, scarlet fever, rhematic fever, glomerular nephritis
  39. Q: Pharyngitis (Group A Strep)
    A: Diagnose with rapid strep or culture. Complications are otitis, abscesses, RF, GN
  40. Q: Skin Infections (Group A Strep)
    A: Impetigo, erysipelas, cellulitis, fascitis, causes GN, not RF
  41. Q: Impetigo
    A: (Group A Strep) Superficial Skin Infection with crusty lesions
  42. Q: Erysipelas
    A: (Group A Strep) Explosive deep infection with lymphatic vessels.
  43. Q: Cellulitis
    A: (Group A Strep) Acute, Sub-Q infection, lots of edema
  44. Q: Scarlet Fever
    A: (Group A Strep) Pharyngitis, strawberry tongue, sandpaper rash
  45. Q: Group B Strep
    A: Female genital tract and gi tract; important cause of neonatal sepsis and meningitis
  46. Q: Group D strep (s. Bovis)
    A: Bacteremia associated with colon cancer
  47. Q: Group F strep (S. milleri)
    A: Abscesses
  48. Q: Group C and G strep
    A: Food borne outbreaks of pharyngitis
  49. Q: Alpha hemolytic diplococci with virulent capsule
    A: Streptococcus pneumoniae
  50. Q: Streptococcus pneumoniae
    A: Upper Respiratory tract, pneumonia, otitis, sinusitis
  51. Q: Enterococcus
    A: gram (+) cocci, grow in bile or NaCl, nosocomial infections, gi tract normal flora, highly resistant to many antibiotics.
  52. Q: Nosocomial Infection
    A: Obtained by stay in hospital.
  53. Q: Strep. Viridans
    A: alpha or beta hemolytic, small colonies
  54. Q: What can strep. viridans cause
    A: endocarditis or dental disease
  55. Q: What can enterococcus cause
    A: bacteremia, UTI, endocarditis
  56. Q: Short Gram (+) aerobic bacilli, catalase (+), sometimes in pairs, small zone of beta-hemolysis.
    A: Listeria monocytogenes
  57. Q: Listeria transmission
    A: Food, has caused major meat recalls
  58. Q: Clinical Significance of Listeria
    A: Major cause of bacteremia and meningitis in newborns (or immunocompromised adults)
  59. Q: What two bacteria can cause meningitis?
    A: Listeria monocytogenes and Group B Strep
  60. Q: Small pleomorphic gram (+) bacilli forming palisades
    A: Corynebacterium (Diphtheroid- Non-Pathogen)
  61. Q: Corynebacterium
    A: In large numbers on skin as normal flora
  62. Q: Corynebacterium Clinical Significance
    A: Most often contaminants, can cause endocarditis on prosthetic valves
  63. Q: Corynebacterium jeikeium Clinical Significance
    A: In immune suppressed pts, causes lymphadentitis, abscesses, meningitis, skin infections and bacteremia.
  64. Q: Corynebacterium diptheriae Clinical Significance
    A: Causes diptheria
  65. Q: Diptheria mechanism of action
    A: Causes pharyngitis with thick leathery gray membrane with surrounding edema. Membrane can cause asphyxiation or myocarditis by toxin it exudes.
  66. Q: Diptheria diagnosis
    A: Throat culture shows growth on Loeffler or Tinsdale agar, methylene blue stain shows metachromatic granules
  67. Q: Small gram (+) rods that form long filaments, alpha hemolytic, produces hydrogen sulfide gas
    A: Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae
  68. Q: Erysipelothrix Clinical Significance
    A: Causes ulcerating, erythematous skin infections called erysipeloid on exposed abraided skin (fishermen, butchers)
  69. Q: Large, aerobic, beta hemolytic, irregular colonies of gram (+) rods that form spores
    A: Bacillus
  70. Q: Where is bacillus found
    A: everywhere
  71. Q: Bacillus Clinical Significance
    A: Can cause bacteremia and endocarditis.
  72. Q: Bacillus cereus
    A: Food poisoning in rice, problem is with toxin.
  73. Q: Bacillus anthracis
    A: Causes anthrax
  74. Q: Three forms of anthrax
    A: 1)Cutaneous- a nonpainful ulcer with black eschar in middle 2)Inhalation- Most problematic, severe shortness of breath and extreme toxicity with widened mediastinum. 3)Gastrointestinal: rare;bloody diarrhea and ab pain.
  75. Q: Small, long, slender, gram (+) rods, alpha hemolytic, catalase (-)
    A: Lactobacillus
  76. Q: Where is lactobacillus found
    A: Lower GI tract and genital tract. Ingredient in yogurt.
  77. Q: Lactobacillus Clinical Significance
    A: Always protective
  78. Q: Anerobic Gram (+) Bacilli
    A: Clostridium and Propionibacterium acnes
  79. Q: Large, spore-forming, anerobic, gram (+) rods
    A: Clostridium
  80. Q: Where is Clostridium normally found
    A: Normal flora of people, animals and soil
  81. Q: Diseases associated with Clostridium perfringens
    A: 1)Gas Gangrene. 2) Necrotizing fasciitis 3) Puerperal sepsis 4) Food Poisoning
  82. Q: What is gas gangrene?
    A: Clostridium perfringens. Rare, rapidly progressive infection in traumatic and surgical wounds. Destruction of muscle, gas in tissue. Mediated by production of toxin. liver and renal failure, shock and death unles debrided. Little inflammation.
  83. Q: What is Necrotizing fasciitis or cellulitis
    A: Mixed aerobic, anerobic infection in traumatized or poorly vascularized tissue. Muscle not involved. Local and less lethal. Marked inflammation.
  84. Q: What is Puerperal sepsis
    A: Caused by C. Perfringens. Necrosis of uterus with bacteremia and intravascular hemolysis following incomplete abortion.
  85. Q: Clostridium tetani basics
    A: Found in nature and GI tract. Vegetative form easily killed but spore must be killed at high temp.
  86. Q: Clostridium tetani method of action
    A: Spore gets into wound and becomes vegetative. Toxin Tetanospasmin inhibits postsynaptic reflexes.
  87. Q: Clostridium tetani Clinical Significance
    A: Causes trismus (lock jaw), stiff neck, difficulty swallowing, rigidity of ab muscles and fever.
  88. Q: C. Botulinum Basics
    A: Found in soil. Eight known toxins but require bacteriophage to be produced.
  89. Q: Manifestations of Food-Borne botulism
    A: General weakness, malaise, and dissiness, dry mouth, constipation, and urinary retention. Can progress onto worse symptoms
  90. Q: Manifestations of Wound botulism
    A: Innocuous lesions 4 - 14 days after injury. Symptoms follow food-borne.
  91. Q: Manifestations of Infant botulism
    A: 3-20 week infant. constipation, weak suck, feeble cry, absent gag reflex, ptosis, and descending flaccidity.
  92. Q: What bacteria is associated with antibiotic-resistant pseudomembranous colitis
    A: Clostridium Difficile
  93. Q: What are the symptoms of C. Difficile
    A: fever, diarrhea, ab pain and ulcer formation (caused by toxins)
  94. Q: What is prominant normal skin flora, also anerobic gram (+) bacilli
    A: Propionibacterium acnes
  95. Q: Where is Propionibacterium acnes a problem
    A: Prosthetic devices, shunts, and acne.
  96. Q: What is actinomycetes
    A: A branching, gram (+) bacilli. Similar morphology to fungi.