Semester 2 Neuro

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Semester 2 Neuro
2012-01-17 21:38:33
Semester Neuro

Semester 2 neuro
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  1. Difference between spinal and cranial meninges
    • Cranial dura mater is double layered and attached to skull
    • Spinal dura mater is single layered and suspended in vertebral canal = real space between dura and periosteum
  2. Describe the path of CSF
    Choro plexus - lateral ventricles - interventricular foramina (of monroe) - third ventricle - cerebral aqueduct(sylvius) - fourth ventricle - Median aperture(magendie) or L & R lateral aperture (luschka) - subarachnoid space - arachnoid villi - sinuses - internal jugular vein
  3. Cerebral artery or vein rupture
    • leads to
    • subarachnoid hemorrhage
    • intraparenchymal hemorrhage
    • intraventricular hemorrhage
  4. Where does CN 1 end
    Olfactory nerve ends at the cribiform plate of ethmoid bone
  5. Where does CN II exit
    Optic nerve exits via the optic canal
  6. What nerves exit via the superior orbital fissure?
    • Occulomotor (III)
    • Trochlear nerve (IV)
    • Abducens nerve (VI)
    • opthalmic nerve (V)1
  7. What exits via foramen rotundum
    Maxillary nerve (V)2
  8. What exits via foramen ovale
    Mandibular nerve (V)3
  9. What exits via internal acoustic meatus
    • Facial nerve (VII)
    • Vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII)
  10. What exits via jugular foramen
    • Glossopharyngeal nerve (IX)
    • Vagus Nerve (X)
    • Accessory nerve (XI)
  11. What exits via hypoglossal canal
    Hypoglossal nerve (XII)
  12. Neocortex
    • 6 layers
    • (cerebral cortex)
  13. Paleocortex
    olfactory cortex (3 layer allocortex)
  14. Archicortex
    hippocampus (allocortex 3 layers)
  15. Supragranular layers I, II, III
    • Connect to other areas of cortex
    • Prominent in associative cortex
    • (cerebral cortex)
  16. Granular layer IV
    (cerebral cortex)
    • recieves input from the thalamus
    • prominent in primary sensory cortex
  17. Infragranular layers V & VI
    (Cerebral cortex)
    • Connect to subcortical regions
    • V: sends outputs to basal ganglia, brain stem and spinal cord.
    • Most prominent in motor cortex.
  18. VI: sends output to the thalamus
  19. Myelination in the cerebral cortex
    • Starts in utero in the motor cortex
    • ends between 20-25 in the frontal lobes
  20. Miller-Dieker syndrome
    Neuronal migration disorder --> 4 cortical layers --> lissencephaly(smooth)--> delyaed development
  21. Schizencephaly
    • abnormal pattern of sulcal and gyral development
    • cleft from ventricle to cortex lined by gray matter
  22. What comprises the Inferior parietal lobule?
    (cerebral cortex)
    • Supramarginal gyrus
    • angular gyrus
  23. What comprises the inferior frontal gyrus?
    (Cerebral cortex)
    • Pars opercularis
    • Pars triangularis
    • Pars orbitalis
  24. Association
    (cerebral cortex)
    • Association- ipsilateral hemisphere
    • Commissure- contralateral hemisphere
    • Projections- tracts
  25. Organophosphates inhibit what
    AchE via irreversible inhibition
  26. What do
    - adrenergic receptors
    -dopamine receptors
    -muscarinic receptors
    - opiate receptors
    Have in common?
    They are G-protein linked
  27. What do
    -Nicotinic receptors
    -GABA-A receptors
    -NMDA receptors
    have in common?
    They are ligand gated ion channels
  28. What is the effect of binding to a muscarinic receptor vs nicotinic receptor?
    • Muscarinic - IP3 and dec cAMP
    • Nicotinic is ligand gated Na channel
  29. Atropine and scopolamine block which receptor?
    Muscarinic receptor
  30. Curare blocks which receptor?
  31. Pathway to make EPI
    • Tyrosine (tyrosine hydroxylase)
    • L-DOPA (Dopa-decarboxylase)
    • Dopamine (Cu+, ascorbate)
    • NEP (SAM)
    • EPI
  32. Indoleamine synthesis
    • L-Trytophan
    • 5-hydroxytryptophan
    • Serotonin
    • melatonin
  33. Similarities and differences between MAO B & MAO A
    • Both break down EPI and NEP
    • MAO B breaks down dopamine
    • MAO A breaks down serotonin
  34. Difference in treament of LDOPA and deprenyl(MAO-B inhibitor) and anticholinergics
    • L-DOPA is precursor but increase in this leads to inc breakdown. --> radical formation
    • deprenyl leads to inc dopamine but no inc in breakdown
    • anticholinergics dec Ach which leads dopamine to dominate
  35. Difference between Tricyclic antidepressants and cocaine and methylphenidate vs amphetamine
    TCA, cocaine and methylphenidate inhibit reuptake of NEP & 5-HT (latter dopamine)
  36. while amphetamine increases release of dopamine, 5-HT & NEP
  37. What vitamin is needed for glutamte to convert into GABA
    pyroxidine (vitamin B6)
  38. Difference between barbituate and benzodiazepines
    • Barbituates stimulate GABA-A receptor
    • Bz sensitize GABA-A receptor