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The study of drug responses that may be unique to an individual due to social, cultural, and biologic phenomena
The process of of drug movement in the body to achieve drug action and ultimately elimination
Drug concentrations and their effects on the body
The effect of a drug that varies from the predicted response due to genetic factors
The need for nurses to utilize knowledge from the social sciences as well as the biologic and physical sciences to provide holistic nursing care
Sets of learned behavior and ideas that human beings acquire as members of a community
A cluster of individuals who function as a group to attain cultural universals
Designed to meet the communities survival needs and common goals such as obtainment of food and continuance of practices that serve to maintain thegrouptm
Defined according to shared languages, shared religions, shared customs, and shared histories.
The widespread human tendency to perceive the ways of doing things in ones own culture as normal and natural and the ways of other cultures as strange , inferior or possibly even unnatural or inhuman
Formalized the concept of transcultural nursing
Founded transcultural nursing society 1974
Traditional health practices
Folk medicine include use of teas, herbs, spices, and special foods
The use of traditional health practices
Can have a neutral, beneficial, deleterious effect on a clients health status.
When a less powerful group changes it's ways to blend in with the dominant cultural group.
Complementary health practices
Combine traditional beliefs and mainstream health practices.
Alternative health practices
A dominant group adopts health practices from a non dominant group.
Using a new therapy along with a mainstream therapy already in use.
Alternative health care
Using a new therapy in place of a mainstream therapy
Transcultural assessment model
Developed by giger and davidhizar in 2008.
Assumes all cultures have 6 cultural phenomena
- Occurs verbally and non verbally.
- Necessary for sustaining human life.
Different types of communication
Language, vernacular English, greetings.
Use of language besides English poses a challenge to many nurses
Translators should be used
Any still of English that varies from standard English
It can lead to misunderstanding by the nurse
All cultures have prescribed norms for greeting and addressing other persons
Direct eye contact, moderate-loud voice, no silence, uses many words to describe symptoms, large amount of personal space, values privacy, low touching, small families, extended family usually lives far distance away, individualism, future oriented, healthy behaviors prevent illness,
Direct eye contact, moderate-loud voice, no periods of silence, small amount of personal space, moderate amount of touching, small families,
Latin and native Americans
No direct eye contact with authoritative position, degrees of comfort with silence, small amount of personal space, value-light touching, large extended families, include family i care, present oriented, spiritually oriented, Christian,
No direct eye contact with authoritative persons, low volume, periods of silence ok, small personal space, little touching in public, family size varies, include present oriented, non Christian, reincarnation,
- Amount of space is an important psychological consideration
- Americans require large deal of space
Major challenge of space
- The use of touch and the protection of modesty.
- Added concern when the clients gender is diff from the nurse.
Muslim, orthodox Jewish, Roma communities.
Groups organized according to a social order that is perceived to facilitate the functioning of the group.
Basic social unit
Include family whenever u can
Perception of time is largely shaped by culture
Perception of time are more likely to be concerned with long term health outcomes
Leads to greater adherence of medication at scheduled times
More likely to discontinue mainstream prescriptive therapies when they are well
Pharmacogenetics- effect of a drug that varies from the predicted response due to genetic factors
Assess ethnocultural and racial background
Collaborate with client to reduce high risk health behaviors
Ex. Client will effectively manage health care
Incorporate non harmful traditional and folk practices with biomedical prescriptions
- Involve family in teaching about prescriptive therapies.
- Provide health information written so client can understand.
- Use illustrations if needed
Client correctly demonstrates understanding of prescriptive therapies and treatments.