Pharm_ch_8.txt

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jcaudill0131
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126995
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Pharm_ch_8.txt
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2012-01-10 14:28:15
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Pharm
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  1. Drug interaction
    An altered or modified action or effect of a drug as a result of interaction with one or more other drugs.
  2. Adverse drug reaction
    Is an undesirable drug effect that ranges from mild untoward effects to severe toxic effects, including hypersensitivity reaction and anaphylaxis.
  3. Drug incompatibility
    Is a chemical or physical reaction that occurs among two or more drugs in vitro (artificial environment)
  4. Pharmacokinetic interactions
    Are changes that occur in the absorption, distribution, metabolism or biotransformation, and excretion of one or more drugs.
  5. Absorption
    When a person takes 2 or more drugs at the same time, the rate of absorption changes. One can block, decrease, or increase rate of other.
  6. What are the 3 ways one drug can block, decrease, or increase the absorption rate of another.
    1. By decreasing or increasing gastric emptying time. 2. By changing the gastric pH. 3. By forming drug complexes.
  7. Distribution
    A drugs distribution to tissues can be affected by it's binding to plasma/serum protein.
  8. Drugs unbound to protein are____________.
    Free active agents and can enter the body.
  9. Two drugs that are highly protein bound and are administered simultaneously can result in _____________.
    Drug displacements
  10. Factors that influence displacement of drugs are...
    (1) the drug concentration in the blood, (2) protein binding power of the drug, and (3) volume of distribution (Vd)
  11. Metabolism (biotransformation)
    A drug can increase the metabolism of another by stimulating liver enzymes.
  12. Drugs that promote induction of enzymes are called _________
    Enzyme inducers. (e.g. Barbiturates such as phenobarbital)
  13. Excretion
    Drugs can increase or decrease renal excretion and have an effect on the excretion of other drugs.
  14. Pharmacodynamic interactions
    Are those that result in additive, synergistic, or antagonistic drug effects.
  15. Additive effect
    When 2 more drugs with similar action are administered, the drug interaction is called an additive effect and is the sum of the effects of the 2 drugs.
  16. Synergistic effect
    When 2 or more drugs are given together, one drug can potentiate or have a synergistic effect on the other.
  17. Antagonistic drug effect
    When 2 drugs that have opposite effects, or antagonistic effects, are administered together, each drug cancels the effect of the other.
  18. Food-drug interaction
    Food is known to increase, decrease, or delay drug absorption. Food can bind with drugs, causing less or slower drug absorption. E.g. Tetracycline and dairy products.
  19. Drug-laboratory interactions
    Abnormal plasma or serum electrolyte concentrations can affect certain drug therapies.
  20. Drug-induced photosensitivity
    A drug induced photosensitivity reaction is a skin reaction that caused by exposure to sunlight
  21. Over-the-counter drugs
    Drugs that are obtainable w/o a prescription, are found in most households.
  22. OTC drug categories
    The FDA is responsible for categorizing OTC drugs.
  23. Category I
    Drugs judged to be both safe and effective.
  24. Category II
    Drugs judged to be either unsafe of ineffective; these drugs should not be included in nonprescription products.
  25. Category III
    Drugs for which there are insufficient data to judge safety or efficacy
  26. Cough and cold medicine
    Contain ingredients such as guaifenesin, dextromethorphan, pseudoephedrine, an analgesic, and an antihistamine.
  27. The FDA ordered removal of __________ from OTC cold remedies.
    Phenylpropanolamine
  28. The nurse is aware that a former major ingredient in many OTC products is phenylpropanolamine, which is contraindicated for clients with all of the following conditions except
    A. Heart disease
    B. Thyroid disease
    C. Diabetes mellitus
    D. Kidney stones
    Answer D rational: phenylpropanolamine, formerly in OTC cold remedies and weight-control drugs, may cause risk of hemorrhagic stroke in young women. May also cause psychosis, hypertension, renal failure, and cardiac dysrhythmias.
  29. What are good sources would you recommend to a client for information about OTC drugs?
    A pharmacist, and the books Handbook of Nonprescription Drugs and Facts and Comparisons

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