Basics of Neuropathology

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Author:
blakegoodman08
ID:
127001
Filename:
Basics of Neuropathology
Updated:
2012-01-10 15:33:45
Tags:
S4M1 S4 Ross University Med Medical School Neurology Pathology
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Description:
From Dr. Martinez's two Neuropathology lectures; focuses on normal and abnormal cellular CNS features, CNS tissue reactions, and the pathologic results of increased ICP and edema,
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  1. Name the 4 stains commonly used in CNS tissue sectioning.
    • H&E
    • Cresyl violet/ Luxol Fast Blue
    • Silver Stain
    • Glial-Fibrilary Acidic Protein (GFAP, IHC)

  2. What stain is this?
    H&E Staining

  3. What stain is this?
    Cresyl violet/Luxol Fast Blue (CV/LFB)

  4. What stain is this?
    Silver Stain

  5. What stain is this?
    anti-Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protien (GFAP)
  6. What are the two main CNS tissue reactions to injury?
    • Cerebral edema
    • Hydrocephalus
  7. List the 6 generalized steps in neuronal apoptosis and necrosis
    Ischemia/Trauma => depleted ATP => loss of membrane potential => increased Glu release, decreased reuptake (excess) => increased activation of Glu receptors => increased Ca2+
  8. List the 4 main causes of neuronal cell death
    • Hypoxia/ischemia (common denominator)
    • Toxins
    • Infectious pathogens
    • Metabolic disorders
  9. List the 4 neuronal reactions to injury
    • Chromatolysis (acute axonal rxn)
    • Red Neuron (ischemic change)
    • Neuronal Atrophy (degeneration)
    • Intraneuronal deposits
  10. Describe chromatolysis and its two major attributes
    • Acute, reversible reaction of the perikaryon to axonal injury
    • 1) perikaryon swells
    • 2) nucleus and Nissl bodies displaced peripherally

  11. What kind of reaction is shown here?
    Chromatolysis
  12. Describe red neuron reaction and 4 major attributes.
    • Acute injury leading to cell death.
    • 1) cell body shrinkage
    • 2) eosinophilic cytoplasm
    • 3) pyknosis of the nucleus
    • 4) loss of Nissl substance (sometimes)

  13. What kind of reaction is shown here?
    Red neuron
  14. Name 3 common anatomic locations of acute ischemic brain lesions
    • Hippocampus (CA1,3,5)
    • Neocortex (layers 3 & 5)
    • Purkinje cells (cortex, cerebellum)
  15. What is the major difference in acute and chronic ischemic injury on H&E stain?
    • Acute: triangular-shaped neurons
    • Chronic: corkscrew-shaped neurons
  16. What are 3 eventual outcomes of repeated transient ischemic injury?
    • acidophilic neurons
    • edematous neuropil
    • vascular proliferation

  17. Is this acute, chronic, or transient ischemia?
    Acute

  18. Is this acute, chronic, or transient ischemia?
    Chronic

  19. Is this acute, chronic, or transient ischemia?
    Transient

  20. What pathologic change is circled in green here?
    Vascular proliferation

  21. What pathologic change is circled in blue here?
    Acidophilic neurons

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