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Sources of Carbon Monoxide.
Incomplete burning of fossil fuels
Ambient CO is mostly from burning gasoline in cars, trucks.
Sources of Lead
Leaded gasoline, no longer used in US
Smelters (industrial processing of metals)
Sources of Nitrogen Oxides (NOx)
Burning fossil fuels at high temperatures
Especially burning fuels in automobiles
Sources of particulate matter
Burning of wood and diesel fuel.
Dirt roads and road construction
Sources of ozone
Secondary pollutant from NOx and VOCs
Sources of Sulfur Oxides (SOx)
Burning coal (fossil fuel containing significant amount of S)
Burning sulfur containing fuel
Sources of VOCs
Vapors released from:
Solvents, gas, paints, glues, plants (terpenes)
Human health effects of Carbon Monoxide
Combines with Hemoglobin, thus reducing its ability to carry O2 to cells.
Cells must have oxygen for cellular respiration.
Health effects of Lead
Damages brain and nervous system
Difficulty in learning, memory, concentration
Children at special risk.
Health effects of NOx
Irritates eyes, nose, throat, lungs.
Increases susceptibility to infection, esp. influenza
Health effects of particulate matter
Carries toxic materials into the lungs which get absorbed into the bloodstream
People with heart or lung disease are at an increased risk of premature death.
Health effects of Ozone
Headache and Fatigue
Exacerbates respiratory problems (asthma, COPD)
Can permanently decrease lung function
Health effects of SOx
Forms sulfurous smog, which:
Damages the respiratory tract
Constricts air passages, causing wheezing, tightness, and shortness of breath.
Environmental effects of Lead
Environmental effects of NOx
Major precursor to acid rain
Major precursor to Ozone (photochemical smog)
Environmental effects of Particulate matter
Source of haze and decreased visibility
Reduces sunlight from reaching the Earth's surface
Important condensation nuclei
Environmental effects of Ozone
Decreases productivity of plants.
Environmental effects of SOx
Major precursor to acid rain which:
Acidifies aquatic ecosystems
Leaches nutrients from the soil
Damages foliage and reduces productivity
Also, it is a precursor to sulfurous smog
Health effects of VOCs
Many are hazardous air pollutants (Benzene, toluene, formaldehyde)
Environmental effects of VOCs
Important smog formers, form Ozone
Clean up/controll of Carbon Monoxide
Catalytic converters use Platinum to make hydrocarbons burn more efficiently
Result is less CO, but more CO2
Public transportation, carpools, walking
Oxygenized fuel mixtures
Clean up/control of Lead
Leaded gas has been phased out, leading to a significant decrease of airborne lead
Lead is still found in the environment and is a public health issue
Clean up/control of NOx
Change air to fuel ratio
Specific methods to reduce gasoline use: more efficient vehicles, public transportation
Clean up/control of Particulate matter
Cover waste piles, vegetate area
Clean up/control of Ozone
Control sources of NOx
Clean up/control of SOx
Burn low sulfur coal
Specific methods to improve coal efficiency and conservation so less coal is needed.
Flue gas scrubbing
Fluidized Bed Combustion