Organic Chemistry Ionic and Covalent Bonds

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  1. Octet Rule: an atom is most stable if its outer shell is either filled or contains eigh elctrons, and it has no electrons of higher energy (even though hydrogen has only two electrons in its filled outer shell)
  2. Electropositive: elements that readily lose an electron and thereby become positively charged.

    Elements in the first column of the periodic table are all electropositive- each readily loses an electron because each has a single electron in its outermost shell
  3. Electronegative: elements that readily acquire and electron and become negatively charged. Elements in the same row as fluorine need only one elctron to have an outer shell of eight so they too readily acquire and electron.
  4. Bond: an attractive force between two ions or between two atoms
  5. Electrostatic attractions: attractive forces between opposite charges
  6. Ionic Bond: a bond that results from the electrostatic attraction between ions of opposite charge
  7. Ionic compounds are formed when an element on the left side of the periodic table (an electropositive element) tranfers one or more electrons to an element on the right side of the periodic table (an electronegative element)
  8. Covalent Bond: formed as a result of sharing electons
    (pg 9)
  9. A hydrogen ion occurs when a hydrogen atom achieves a completely empty shell by losing an electron. This is hydrogen ion is no called a proton bc when a hydrogen atom loses its valence electron, only the hydrogen nucleus-which consists of a single proton- remains.
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Organic Chemistry Ionic and Covalent Bonds
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