Honors World History Exam
Card Set Information
Honors World History Exam
cards for history
What was the key to the peace enjoyed by Rome's diverse peoples?
Who was the
oldest male member in the family
At what age did girls get married?
What did marriage among responsible Romans include?
an emotional bond and a legal bond
What tools did Roman farmers use?
axes, shovels, hoes
Who said "I found Rome a city of brick and left it a city of marble"?
What types of jobs could slaves NOT hold?
What covers the walls of the Villa of Mysteries in Pompeii?
scenes of an initiation right in to a mystic, religious cult
What has been found on the outside on the walls of buildings in Pompeii?
During the reign of Augustus, how much money was a legionnaire given when he left the Legion?
five years pay
It is believed that the first major civilization in Mesoamerica was that of the ___?
What, according to archaeologists, is believed to be the first major city of Mesoamerica?
How was Mayan civilization structured?
a group of city-states ruled by individual kings
What do archaeologists think caused the collapse of the Mayan civilization?
fort shortages, disease, drought
What building structures would you find on a visit to Teotihuacan?
Temple of the Sun
Temple of the Moon
Avenue of the Dead
Where were the Maya primarily located?
How can Mayan society best be described?
a society where labor is divided along sex lines
What, according to Mayan religious beliefs, was essential to the god's happiness?
Why do we know so little about Mayan history and daily lief?
Spanish destroyed Mayan codexes
What did the Mayan calendar track?
Cycle of Venus
Who took over most of Central Mexicao from the peoples who originally lived there?
How large was the Aztec Empire at its height?
22 million people
How did the Aztecs deal with conqured rulers?
allowed the rulers to remain in power as long as they served the Empire
What types of power did Aztec rulers hold?
religious and political power
What what the name of the Aztec capital?
What was the key to the Aztec controlling conquered peoples?
the sacrifice system
Aside from gold dust, what did the Aztec use for currency?
Who was the last ruler of the Aztec Empire?
How frequently were market days held?
twice a week
Where did Aztec sacrifices occur?
at temples that stood in the center of cities
According to the belief of the Aztecs, the sun was created by
gods sacrificing other gods
Why did each Aztec god have a female counterpart?
The Aztec believed in the duality of all things
What was the basic purpose of Aztec religion?
To ask/answer basic questions of life
How many major types of gods did the Aztecs have?
What were the most important types of gods to the Aztecs?
What was Quetzalcoatl?
a god described as a Feathered Serpent
What does "Huitzilopochtl" literally mean?
Blue Humming Bird on the Left
How many levels were there in Aztec political life?
Who was responsible for the conquest of the Aztecs?
Where was the Inca Empire located?
The Andes Mountains
When did the Inca begin to become powerful?
after the collapse of the Moche Kingdom
What types of structures did the Inca build?
bridges, temples, stone roads
How did the Inca keep records and transmit messages?
Who conquered the inca?
Why were the Spanish able to conquer the Inca?
disease decimated the population
there had been a weakening civil war
allied w/enemies of Inca
What physical feature is most commonly used to represent the skills of the Inca as builders?
Who could you marry as an Incan farmer?
another Incan farmer
What jobs could women have in an Inca village?
a wife or priestess
What were the achievements of the Maya, aztec, and Inca?
calendars, mathematics, record keeping
Who is considered to be the restorer of an uncorrupted original monotheistic religion?
What great even of Islamic history occurred in 630-631 AD?
The Prophet capture the city of his birth
Why did Muslims split into two main groups?
The issue of who should've been the first Caliph after Mohammed's death
Which of the Five Pillars is based on financial ability?
In which city did the Prophet first begin his preaching?
Which battle ended the Muslim incursion into Western Europe?
Battle of Tours
When was Jerusalem initially captured by the Muslims?
during the Umayyad Caliphate
Who called forth the People's Crusade?
Peter the Hermit
Who led the Crusader forces that recaptured Jerusalem from the Muslims?
Raymond of Toulouse
What effect did the Crusades have on Italy?
Italy grew rich from transporting Crusaders to the Holy Land and trade goods to Italy
Of the Five Pillars of Muslim faith, which may be suspended for age or health reasons?
What are some of the distinguishing features of Muslim Architecture?
bright colors, arches supported by pillars, open/airy
Who were the four men who guided Islam following the death of Mohammed?
What are the Five Pillars of Faith?
the practices that make up the Muslim faith
How many actual holidays are in the Muslim Calendar?
How was Islam spread following the death of the Prophet?
by military conquest
Who called the First Crusade?
Pope Urban II
Which Crusade came closest to recapturing Jerusalem after the Muslims retook it from the Christians?
What was the original meaning of Jihad?
walk in the way of the Lord
How did the Pop make it easier for people to go on the Crusades?
decreed that it was not a sin to kill an infidel
What happened when the Crusaders captured Jerusalem for the first time?
they slaughtered most of the inhabitants without regard to faith
What happened after the Crusaders captured Antoich?
a huge Muslim Army laid siege to the city
Why was Mohammed's first marriage different for the time period?
his wife was 20 years older than him
Who commanded the Frankish Army that turned Muslims back in Western Europe?
t did the Muslims call the above battle?
Battle of the Court of Martyrs
Who led the Third Crusade?
Richard the Lionheart
What positive things came from the Crusades?
advances in math and medicine were made, classics of the Ancients were reintroduced
What Byzantine Church was later turned into a Mosque?
How is Muslim architecture different from that of Europe of the same time period?
Who raised Mohammed after his parents died?
How old was Mohammed when he had his first revelation?
What did he do following his first revelation?
he told no one at first
What city did Moohammed flee to when it became apparent he was no longer safe in his home?
What are the two primary sects of Islam?
Sunni and Shi'ite
Which of the above is the largest?
How did the residents of the city to which mohammed fled receive him/
They accepted him as a wise man
Where were Rome's most vulnerable frontiers?
to the North along the Rhine and Danube
How was Roman culture spread throughout the Mediterranean World?
through Roman soldiers, who often married and settled with local women
How did the Romans view citizenship?
something to be shared even with conqured people
What was the penalty for a Vestal losing her virginity prior to retiring?
being buried alive
Who had sex with Rhea Silvia while she slept and got her pregnant?
How many versions of the story of the rescue of Romulus and Remus did we discuss in class?
What is the meaning of the Latin word "lupa"?
She-wolf, or prostitute
Why did Romulus kill Remus?
Remus stepped over the furrow Romulus was digging
Why was Rome built on a hill seventeen milds from the ocean
could be defended from sea raiders and land attacks
Besides the Etruscans, whome did the Romans borrow much of their culture from?
What was one of the differences between the Romans and Etruscans?
viewed men and women as equals
What were Etruscan sports like?
tended towards violence
saw men and women compete
used prisoners as sacrifice
What is believed to have developed as a result of Etruscan Funeral rites?
What were some of the differences between Romans and Greeks?
were more utilitarian than the Greeks
What would the Romans frequently do after conquering an enemy nation?
incorporate culture into Roman culture
How did the Romans view religion?
not very spiritual
not much ceremony
What was one of Rome's greatest architectural achievements?
What architectural techniques did the Romans perfect?
techniques for building large buildings
What did Roman beliefs tend to support?
What was one of the chief characteristics of the Roman Empire?
a focus on building roads
What were the three schools of Roman philosophy?
Roman religion tended to be
How did the Stoics view you and your fate?
You're the master of your own fate
What did the Cynics say about you and harm?
"No harm can come to a good man"
What happened to Romans and their sports in the late Empire?
they became spectators
What does the movie
reflect about the Roman world?
average Roman outlook on life
What was the lorica segmentata?
metal body armor worn by many Roman soldiers
Approximately how much did a legionnaires' equipment weigh?
Aside from an individual soldier, what was the smallest unit of the Roman Army?
How many Cohorts were in a legion?
What was the difference between the first cohort and the rest of a legion?
It was twice the size of the others and had the best soldiers
Who commanded a Legion?
Beside the infantry, what other types of troops were in a legion?
What were the murmillos?
What was the last line of a legion called?
According to the first Century AD historian, Josephus, what equipment did a Roman Soldier carry besides his personal gear?
a bucket and and axe
From the lectures, what was a Roman tent made out of?
Who usually paid for the games the people saw in the arenas and circuses?
What was the original name of the Coliseum?
During the fourteenth century, people did not believe that the cause of plague originated from what?
rats and lice
What were some of the things that occurred in the Middle Ages?
the invention of gunpowder, eyeglasses, clocks, stirrups
What happened to the original inhabitants of Britain after the Romans left?
They were driven into Wales in the west and Scotland in the north
Written accounts from this period talk about the invasions and about ___ as causing hardships for the people living in Western Europe.
What scientific evidence supports contemporary claims about weather conditions in the Middle Ages?
physical evidence of a volcanic eruption
Who founded the Carolingian Dynasty?
What confirmed the Franks as "Protectors of the Church" after 756?
They liberated Rome from Lambards
What was Manorialism?
an economic system where small communities formed around a central lord or master
What did a manor consist of?
surrounding farm land
What does the French word "Cheval" mean?
What was a knight expected to be like?
to have strength and skill for combat
a chivalrous nature
What were some of the technological advances in the Middle Ages?
How did the church see the development of the mechanical clock?
The Church was against it because it undermined Church authority
What was one of the benefits to the development of the clock?
allowed individual autonomy
work now measured by time
Who actually invented gunpowder?
What was one unexpected consequence of the development of gunpowder?
Castles became useless
What is "Parallel Development"?
when two things develop independently at the same time
When did the Normans invade England?
Who led the invasion of England?
Harald Hardrada of Norway
What was King Edward of England known as?
Why did the Pope support one of the invaders and not the other?
William swore on the relics of a saint, thereby winning the pope's favors
What evidence was there that one of the battles fought by the English against the invading Vikings was particularly brutal?
The Vikings left behind 216 ships
What Battle saw the defeat of the English to the final invaders of their country?
Battle of York
How can Mayan religion best be described?
believing that all of life was in the hands of a divine power
What was the purpose of the Doomsday Book?
to demonstrate the power of the government machine in the reign of William I
Why wasn't the Doomsday Book every completed?
was abandoned early in the reign of William Rufus, William I's successor
What development led to the growth of towns in the Middle Ages?
development of advanced farming technique
Why did the inclusino of peas and beans improve human and animal diets?
There was an increase in high quality protein
What piece of propaganda did William have made after his conquest of England
the Bayeux Tapestry
What is the benefit of a three field rotation in growing crops?
The soil is allowed to get its nutrients back
Why was the peasant population able to begin moving to towns and specializing in certain tasks?
some were no longer needed for agriculture
Where did unemployed peasants turn for work?
trade and manufacture
Why did people begin taking the name of their trade as their last name?
The increase in population led to the need for more distinct, personal names
What is the difference between a city and a town in the Middle Ages?
A city had a bishop.
What was one of the leading factors in the growth of Italian city-states?
Teh trade routes opened
Which region of Italy had the hardest time with communications?
mountains of northern Italy
What was one, true unifying force in Italy in the Middle Ages?
the Church in Rome
What had happened to the population of Italy between 1100 and 1347?
Why did Italy actually benefit from the Crusades?
Ships carried the Crusaders to the Holy Land to kill Muslims, loaded up with trade goods made by Muslims, and brought those trade goods back to Italy where they were sold for huge profits
According to some economic historians, what happened to the average income in Italy between the 11th and 13th centuries?
What caused the sudden, drastic decline in the fortunes of Italy?
the Black Plague
What did Negland gain control of in the early 1400s?
the production of wool
What unexpected effect did the crusades and the Black Death have on Western Europe?
It weakened the power of nobility
What did the average person support the kings over the old nobility?
They saw it as a way to lessen the power of the nobles
Who were the three most powerful monarchs in Western Europe by 1500?
How many of Henry VIII's children lived to adulthood?
How many wives did Henry VIII have?
Why was the Renaissance able to start in Italy in the mid-1400s?
They had the money to do so
What happened when the Turks captured the Byzantine Empire?
Large numbers of Christian scholars left Greece for Italy
What happened to art in the mid-1400s?
Wealthy families and the church had amassed enough wealth to become patrons of the arts
Who were the "Fab Four" of the Renaissance?
Leonard Da Vinci
What does Mr. Smith think da Vinci's greatest work is?
the Last Supper
While many people considered the art of the Renaissance to be "new", it was actually what?
the return to the style of Rome and Greece in the Classical Periods
What type of government developed in Milan?
How did the council of prelates who met in Pisa in 1409 attempt to end the Great Schism?
They elected a new pope in place of the two that existed; ended up with 3 popes
Who led the French Army to several victories in the Hundred Years War?
Joan of Arc
Who took over dominance of Florence's banking industry in 1434?
the Medici banking family
Who ended the 100 Years War?
Which two Spanish monarches married in 1469?
Ferdinand of Aragon and isabella of Castille
Who ended the War of the Roses in England and replaced Richard III as king?
What unusual thing did Henry Tudor do after becoming king?
He cut off funding for all foreign wars
What did the Spanish do after reconquering Granada?
They sought overseas expansion
Why did Spain become the most powerful nation in Western Europe in the early to mid-1500s?
the gold and silver that flowed from the "New World" through Spain after the conquest of Mexico and Peru
superiority on the battlefield
How did the early Greeks refer to themselves?
What reforms did Clisthenes enact?
enlarged Athenian Assembly and increased its powers
created Council of 500 to represent the different classes
Officials were elected
Citizenship granted to some freedmen and to some immigrants
Who was Draco?
an Athenian noble who was credited with putting down first written laws of Athens
Which of the four Athenian leaders who developed their government cancelled land mortgages?
What was one of the flaws of Athens's government?
Athens' adult population
: 50,000 male citizens with voting rights
: the citizen had to be there to vote
Women had few rights and opportunities
Slavery played a major role in the economy
Orators often used forceful and coercive language, rather than logic, to sway voters
Which Greek City-State encouraged the Greeks in Miletus to revolt against the Persions?
Where did the Greeks defeat the Persians during the first Persian invasion of Greece?