Honors World History Exam

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Honors World History Exam
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2012-01-16 15:15:27
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  1. What was the key to the peace enjoyed by Rome's diverse peoples?
    Roman Legions
  2. Who was the paterfamilias?
    oldest male member in the family
  3. At what age did girls get married?
    12-15
  4. What did marriage among responsible Romans include?
    an emotional bond and a legal bond
  5. What tools did Roman farmers use?
    axes, shovels, hoes
  6. Who said "I found Rome a city of brick and left it a city of marble"?
    Augustus Caesar
  7. What types of jobs could slaves NOT hold?
    government clerks
  8. What covers the walls of the Villa of Mysteries in Pompeii?
    scenes of an initiation right in to a mystic, religious cult
  9. What has been found on the outside on the walls of buildings in Pompeii?
    grafitti
  10. During the reign of Augustus, how much money was a legionnaire given when he left the Legion?
    five years pay
  11. It is believed that the first major civilization in Mesoamerica was that of the ___?
    Olmec
  12. What, according to archaeologists, is believed to be the first major city of Mesoamerica?
    Teotihuacan
  13. How was Mayan civilization structured?
    a group of city-states ruled by individual kings
  14. What do archaeologists think caused the collapse of the Mayan civilization?
    fort shortages, disease, drought
  15. What building structures would you find on a visit to Teotihuacan?
    • Temple of the Sun
    • Temple of the Moon
    • Avenue of the Dead
  16. Where were the Maya primarily located?
    Yucatan Peninsula
  17. How can Mayan society best be described?
    a society where labor is divided along sex lines
  18. What, according to Mayan religious beliefs, was essential to the god's happiness?
    human blood
  19. Why do we know so little about Mayan history and daily lief?
    Spanish destroyed Mayan codexes
  20. What did the Mayan calendar track?
    • Cycle of Venus
    • Solar cycle
    • Lunar cycle
  21. Who took over most of Central Mexicao from the peoples who originally lived there?
    the Aztec
  22. How large was the Aztec Empire at its height?
    22 million people
  23. How did the Aztecs deal with conqured rulers?
    allowed the rulers to remain in power as long as they served the Empire
  24. What types of power did Aztec rulers hold?
    religious and political power
  25. What what the name of the Aztec capital?
    Tenochtitlan
  26. What was the key to the Aztec controlling conquered peoples?
    the sacrifice system
  27. Aside from gold dust, what did the Aztec use for currency?
    cocoa beans
  28. Who was the last ruler of the Aztec Empire?
    Montectzuma
  29. How frequently were market days held?
    twice a week
  30. Where did Aztec sacrifices occur?
    at temples that stood in the center of cities
  31. According to the belief of the Aztecs, the sun was created by
    gods sacrificing other gods
  32. Why did each Aztec god have a female counterpart?
    The Aztec believed in the duality of all things
  33. What was the basic purpose of Aztec religion?
    To ask/answer basic questions of life
  34. How many major types of gods did the Aztecs have?
    3
  35. What were the most important types of gods to the Aztecs?
    Fertility
  36. What was Quetzalcoatl?
    a god described as a Feathered Serpent
  37. What does "Huitzilopochtl" literally mean?
    Blue Humming Bird on the Left
  38. How many levels were there in Aztec political life?
    4
  39. Who was responsible for the conquest of the Aztecs?
    Cortes
  40. Where was the Inca Empire located?
    The Andes Mountains
  41. When did the Inca begin to become powerful?
    after the collapse of the Moche Kingdom
  42. What types of structures did the Inca build?
    bridges, temples, stone roads
  43. How did the Inca keep records and transmit messages?
    quipus
  44. Who conquered the inca?
    Pizarro
  45. Why were the Spanish able to conquer the Inca?
    • disease decimated the population
    • there had been a weakening civil war
    • allied w/enemies of Inca
  46. What physical feature is most commonly used to represent the skills of the Inca as builders?
    Machu Picchu
  47. Who could you marry as an Incan farmer?
    another Incan farmer
  48. What jobs could women have in an Inca village?
    a wife or priestess
  49. What were the achievements of the Maya, aztec, and Inca?
    calendars, mathematics, record keeping
  50. Who is considered to be the restorer of an uncorrupted original monotheistic religion?
    Mohammed
  51. What great even of Islamic history occurred in 630-631 AD?
    The Prophet capture the city of his birth
  52. Why did Muslims split into two main groups?
    The issue of who should've been the first Caliph after Mohammed's death
  53. Which of the Five Pillars is based on financial ability?
    the Pilgrimage
  54. In which city did the Prophet first begin his preaching?
    Mecca
  55. Which battle ended the Muslim incursion into Western Europe?
    Battle of Tours
  56. When was Jerusalem initially captured by the Muslims?
    during the Umayyad Caliphate
  57. Who called forth the People's Crusade?
    Peter the Hermit
  58. Who led the Crusader forces that recaptured Jerusalem from the Muslims?
    Raymond of Toulouse
  59. What effect did the Crusades have on Italy?
    Italy grew rich from transporting Crusaders to the Holy Land and trade goods to Italy
  60. Of the Five Pillars of Muslim faith, which may be suspended for age or health reasons?
    Sawm, fasting
  61. What are some of the distinguishing features of Muslim Architecture?
    bright colors, arches supported by pillars, open/airy
  62. Who were the four men who guided Islam following the death of Mohammed?
    • Ali
    • Abu Bakr
    • Umar
    • Abu Talib
  63. What are the Five Pillars of Faith?
    the practices that make up the Muslim faith
  64. How many actual holidays are in the Muslim Calendar?
    2
  65. How was Islam spread following the death of the Prophet?
    by military conquest
  66. Who called the First Crusade?
    Pope Urban II
  67. Which Crusade came closest to recapturing Jerusalem after the Muslims retook it from the Christians?
    3rd Crusade
  68. What was the original meaning of Jihad?
    walk in the way of the Lord
  69. How did the Pop make it easier for people to go on the Crusades?
    decreed that it was not a sin to kill an infidel
  70. What happened when the Crusaders captured Jerusalem for the first time?
    they slaughtered most of the inhabitants without regard to faith
  71. What happened after the Crusaders captured Antoich?
    a huge Muslim Army laid siege to the city
  72. Why was Mohammed's first marriage different for the time period?
    his wife was 20 years older than him
  73. Who commanded the Frankish Army that turned Muslims back in Western Europe?
    Charles Martel
  74. t did the Muslims call the above battle?
    Battle of the Court of Martyrs
  75. Who led the Third Crusade?
    Richard the Lionheart
  76. What positive things came from the Crusades?
    advances in math and medicine were made, classics of the Ancients were reintroduced
  77. What Byzantine Church was later turned into a Mosque?
    Hagia Sophia
  78. How is Muslim architecture different from that of Europe of the same time period?
    • Muslim: open/airy
    • Europe: heavy/dark
  79. Who raised Mohammed after his parents died?
    his Uncle
  80. How old was Mohammed when he had his first revelation?
    40
  81. What did he do following his first revelation?
    he told no one at first
  82. What city did Moohammed flee to when it became apparent he was no longer safe in his home?
    Medina
  83. What are the two primary sects of Islam?
    Sunni and Shi'ite
  84. Which of the above is the largest?
    Sunni
  85. How did the residents of the city to which mohammed fled receive him/
    They accepted him as a wise man
  86. Where were Rome's most vulnerable frontiers?
    to the North along the Rhine and Danube
  87. How was Roman culture spread throughout the Mediterranean World?
    through Roman soldiers, who often married and settled with local women
  88. How did the Romans view citizenship?
    something to be shared even with conqured people
  89. What was the penalty for a Vestal losing her virginity prior to retiring?
    being buried alive
  90. Who had sex with Rhea Silvia while she slept and got her pregnant?
    Mars
  91. How many versions of the story of the rescue of Romulus and Remus did we discuss in class?
    2
  92. What is the meaning of the Latin word "lupa"?
    She-wolf, or prostitute
  93. Why did Romulus kill Remus?
    Remus stepped over the furrow Romulus was digging
  94. Why was Rome built on a hill seventeen milds from the ocean
    could be defended from sea raiders and land attacks
  95. Besides the Etruscans, whome did the Romans borrow much of their culture from?
    Greeks
  96. What was one of the differences between the Romans and Etruscans?
    viewed men and women as equals
  97. What were Etruscan sports like?
    • tended towards violence
    • saw men and women compete
    • used prisoners as sacrifice
  98. What is believed to have developed as a result of Etruscan Funeral rites?
    Gladiator Fighting
  99. What were some of the differences between Romans and Greeks?
    were more utilitarian than the Greeks
  100. What would the Romans frequently do after conquering an enemy nation?
    incorporate culture into Roman culture
  101. How did the Romans view religion?
    • not very spiritual
    • not much ceremony
    • polytheistic
  102. What was one of Rome's greatest architectural achievements?
    • concrete
    • aqueducts
  103. What architectural techniques did the Romans perfect?
    • aqueducts
    • amphitheaters
    • techniques for building large buildings
  104. What did Roman beliefs tend to support?
    the military
  105. What was one of the chief characteristics of the Roman Empire?
    a focus on building roads
  106. What were the three schools of Roman philosophy?
    • Stoic
    • Cynic
    • Epicurean
  107. Roman religion tended to be
    relativelly spiritless
  108. How did the Stoics view you and your fate?
    You're the master of your own fate
  109. What did the Cynics say about you and harm?
    "No harm can come to a good man"
  110. What happened to Romans and their sports in the late Empire?
    they became spectators
  111. What does the movie Gladiator reflect about the Roman world?
    average Roman outlook on life
  112. What was the lorica segmentata?
    metal body armor worn by many Roman soldiers
  113. Approximately how much did a legionnaires' equipment weigh?
    120-125 lbs
  114. Aside from an individual soldier, what was the smallest unit of the Roman Army?
    conturbenium
  115. How many Cohorts were in a legion?
    10
  116. What was the difference between the first cohort and the rest of a legion?
    It was twice the size of the others and had the best soldiers
  117. Who commanded a Legion?
    a Legatus
  118. Beside the infantry, what other types of troops were in a legion?
    • archers
    • cavalry
    • Auxiliary cohorts
  119. What were the murmillos?
    heavyweight gladiators
  120. What was the last line of a legion called?
    Trairius
  121. According to the first Century AD historian, Josephus, what equipment did a Roman Soldier carry besides his personal gear?
    a bucket and and axe
  122. From the lectures, what was a Roman tent made out of?
    leather
  123. Who usually paid for the games the people saw in the arenas and circuses?
    wealthy politicians
  124. What was the original name of the Coliseum?
    Flavian Amphitheater
  125. During the fourteenth century, people did not believe that the cause of plague originated from what?
    rats and lice
  126. What were some of the things that occurred in the Middle Ages?
    • the invention of gunpowder, eyeglasses, clocks, stirrups
    • agricultural revolution
  127. What happened to the original inhabitants of Britain after the Romans left?
    They were driven into Wales in the west and Scotland in the north
  128. Written accounts from this period talk about the invasions and about ___ as causing hardships for the people living in Western Europe.
    • bad weather
    • crop failure
  129. What scientific evidence supports contemporary claims about weather conditions in the Middle Ages?
    • ice samples
    • tree rings
    • physical evidence of a volcanic eruption
  130. Who founded the Carolingian Dynasty?
    Charles Martel
  131. What confirmed the Franks as "Protectors of the Church" after 756?
    They liberated Rome from Lambards
  132. What was Manorialism?
    an economic system where small communities formed around a central lord or master
  133. What did a manor consist of?
    • castle
    • church
    • village
    • surrounding farm land
  134. What does the French word "Cheval" mean?
    horse
  135. What was a knight expected to be like?
    • to have strength and skill for combat
    • a chivalrous nature
  136. What were some of the technological advances in the Middle Ages?
    • water wheel
    • mechanical clock
    • printing press
    • gunpowder
  137. How did the church see the development of the mechanical clock?
    The Church was against it because it undermined Church authority
  138. What was one of the benefits to the development of the clock?
    • allowed individual autonomy
    • work now measured by time
  139. Who actually invented gunpowder?
    the Chinese
  140. What was one unexpected consequence of the development of gunpowder?
    Castles became useless
  141. What is "Parallel Development"?
    when two things develop independently at the same time
  142. When did the Normans invade England?
    1066
  143. Who led the invasion of England?
    Harald Hardrada of Norway
  144. What was King Edward of England known as?
    The Confessor
  145. Why did the Pope support one of the invaders and not the other?
    William swore on the relics of a saint, thereby winning the pope's favors
  146. What evidence was there that one of the battles fought by the English against the invading Vikings was particularly brutal?
    The Vikings left behind 216 ships
  147. What Battle saw the defeat of the English to the final invaders of their country?
    Battle of York
  148. How can Mayan religion best be described?
    • polytheistic
    • believing that all of life was in the hands of a divine power
  149. What was the purpose of the Doomsday Book?
    to demonstrate the power of the government machine in the reign of William I
  150. Why wasn't the Doomsday Book every completed?
    was abandoned early in the reign of William Rufus, William I's successor
  151. What development led to the growth of towns in the Middle Ages?
    development of advanced farming technique
  152. Why did the inclusino of peas and beans improve human and animal diets?
    There was an increase in high quality protein
  153. What piece of propaganda did William have made after his conquest of England
    the Bayeux Tapestry
  154. What is the benefit of a three field rotation in growing crops?
    The soil is allowed to get its nutrients back
  155. Why was the peasant population able to begin moving to towns and specializing in certain tasks?
    some were no longer needed for agriculture
  156. Where did unemployed peasants turn for work?
    trade and manufacture
  157. Why did people begin taking the name of their trade as their last name?
    The increase in population led to the need for more distinct, personal names
  158. What is the difference between a city and a town in the Middle Ages?
    A city had a bishop.
  159. What was one of the leading factors in the growth of Italian city-states?
    Teh trade routes opened
  160. Which region of Italy had the hardest time with communications?
    mountains of northern Italy
  161. What was one, true unifying force in Italy in the Middle Ages?
    the Church in Rome
  162. What had happened to the population of Italy between 1100 and 1347?
    It doubled
  163. Why did Italy actually benefit from the Crusades?
    Ships carried the Crusaders to the Holy Land to kill Muslims, loaded up with trade goods made by Muslims, and brought those trade goods back to Italy where they were sold for huge profits
  164. According to some economic historians, what happened to the average income in Italy between the 11th and 13th centuries?
    it tripled
  165. What caused the sudden, drastic decline in the fortunes of Italy?
    the Black Plague
  166. What did Negland gain control of in the early 1400s?
    the production of wool
  167. What unexpected effect did the crusades and the Black Death have on Western Europe?
    It weakened the power of nobility
  168. What did the average person support the kings over the old nobility?
    They saw it as a way to lessen the power of the nobles
  169. Who were the three most powerful monarchs in Western Europe by 1500?
    • Charles V
    • Louis XII
    • Henry VII
  170. How many of Henry VIII's children lived to adulthood?
    3
  171. How many wives did Henry VIII have?
    6
  172. Why was the Renaissance able to start in Italy in the mid-1400s?
    They had the money to do so
  173. What happened when the Turks captured the Byzantine Empire?
    Large numbers of Christian scholars left Greece for Italy
  174. What happened to art in the mid-1400s?
    Wealthy families and the church had amassed enough wealth to become patrons of the arts
  175. Who were the "Fab Four" of the Renaissance?
    • Michaelangelo
    • Leonard Da Vinci
    • Raphael
    • Donatello
  176. What does Mr. Smith think da Vinci's greatest work is?
    the Last Supper
  177. While many people considered the art of the Renaissance to be "new", it was actually what?
    the return to the style of Rome and Greece in the Classical Periods
  178. What type of government developed in Milan?
    a dictatorship
  179. How did the council of prelates who met in Pisa in 1409 attempt to end the Great Schism?
    They elected a new pope in place of the two that existed; ended up with 3 popes
  180. Who led the French Army to several victories in the Hundred Years War?
    Joan of Arc
  181. Who took over dominance of Florence's banking industry in 1434?
    the Medici banking family
  182. Who ended the 100 Years War?
    Charles VII
  183. Which two Spanish monarches married in 1469?
    Ferdinand of Aragon and isabella of Castille
  184. Who ended the War of the Roses in England and replaced Richard III as king?
    Henry Tudor
  185. What unusual thing did Henry Tudor do after becoming king?
    He cut off funding for all foreign wars
  186. What did the Spanish do after reconquering Granada?
    They sought overseas expansion
  187. Why did Spain become the most powerful nation in Western Europe in the early to mid-1500s?
    • the gold and silver that flowed from the "New World" through Spain after the conquest of Mexico and Peru
    • superiority on the battlefield
  188. How did the early Greeks refer to themselves?
    Hellenes
  189. What reforms did Clisthenes enact?
    • enlarged Athenian Assembly and increased its powers
    • created Council of 500 to represent the different classes
    • Officials were elected
    • Citizenship granted to some freedmen and to some immigrants
    • Ostracism
  190. Who was Draco?
    an Athenian noble who was credited with putting down first written laws of Athens
  191. Which of the four Athenian leaders who developed their government cancelled land mortgages?
    Solon
  192. What was one of the flaws of Athens's government?
    • Athens' adult population: 50,000 male citizens with voting rights
    • Direct democracy: the citizen had to be there to vote
    • Women had few rights and opportunities
    • Slavery played a major role in the economy
    • Orators often used forceful and coercive language, rather than logic, to sway voters
  193. Which Greek City-State encouraged the Greeks in Miletus to revolt against the Persions?
    Athens
  194. Where did the Greeks defeat the Persians during the first Persian invasion of Greece?
    Marathon

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