A & P

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A & P
2012-01-10 23:13:10
Chp Skeletal System

Skeletal System
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  1. Diaphysis or Shaft
    hollow tube mad of hard compact bone, a rigid and strong structure light enough in weight to permit easy movement (Long Bones)
  2. Medullary cavity
    the hollow area inside the diaphysis of a bone; contains a soft, yellow bone marrow, an inactive fatty form of marrow found in the adult skeleton (Long bones)
  3. Epiphyses
    the ends of the bone- red bone marrow fills in the spongy bone composing the epiphyses (long bones)
  4. Articular cartilage
    a thin layer of cartilage covering each epiphyses; functions like a small rubber cushion would if placed over the ends of bones where joints meet. (long bones)
  5. Periosteum
    a strong fibrous membrane covering a long bone everywhere except at joint surfaces, where it is covered by articular cartilage. (long bones)
  6. Endosteum
    a thin membrane that lines the medullar cavity (long bones)
  7. Compact (dense) bone
    a thin layer surronding cancellous bone (flat bones)
  8. Cancellous bone (spongy bone or diploe in flat bones)
    on the inside of the thin layer of compact bone (flat bones)
  9. Trabeculae
    bony portions of the spongy bone that surrond the open spaces (flat bones)
  10. 2 major types of connective tissue:
    • 1. Bone
    • 2. Cartilage
  11. Compact bone
    • 1. does not contain a network of open spaces
    • 2. instead, the matrix (intercellular substance) is organized into numerous structural units called osteons or haversian systems
  12. Osteon
    Circular, tube-like composed of calcified matrix arranged in multiple layers resembling rings of an onion, each ring is called a concentric lamella. The circular rings or lamella surround the central canal, which contains blood vessels.
  13. Osteocytes
    mature bone cells that were formerly the active bone building cells called osteoblasts. Osteocytes lie between the hard layers of the lamellae in little spaces called lacunae.
  14. Canaliculi
    Small passageways or canals that contain cytoplasmic extensions of the osteocyte that connect lacunae with one another and with the centr5al (haversian) canal in each osteon.
  15. Chondrocytes
    Cartilage cells, located in the lacunae that are suspended in the cartilage matrix like air bubbles in a block of firm gelatin
  16. Cartilage
    • 1. Resembles and differs from bone
    • 2. More intercellular substance than of cells
    • 3. Collagenous fibers are embedded in a firm gel instead of in a calcified cement substance as in bone
    • 4. Flexible
    • 5. No blood vessels, causes cartilage to rebuild itself slowly after injury
    • 6. Nutrients diffuse through the matrix to reach cells
  17. Osteoblasts
    Bone-forming cells

    "think Building"
  18. Osteoclasts
    Bone-resorbing cells

    "think Collapsing"
  19. Endochondral ossification
    • meaning "formed in cartilage"
    • Many bones of the body are formed from cartilage models
  20. Epiphyseal plate
    cartilage plate between the epiphysis and diaphysis and allows frowth to occur aka growth plate
  21. Epiphyseal line
    Growth ceases, marks the location where the two centers of ossification have fused together.
  22. Axial skeleton
    Bones of the center or axis of the body, including bones of the skull, spine, chest and hyoid bone in neck

    Total = 80 bones
  23. Appendicular skeleton
    Bones of the upper (shoulder, pectoral girdles, arms, wrists, hands) and lower (hip, pelvic girdles, legs, ankles, feet) extremities

    Total = 126 bones
  24. Skull
    • 8 bones that form the cranium
    • 14 bones that form the face
    • 6 tiny bones in the middle ear
  25. Cranial bones
    • Frontal- (1) forehead bone, forms most of upper eye sockets
    • Parietal- (2) form bulging topsides of cranium
    • Temporal- (2) form lower sides of cranium, contain middle and inner ear structures
    • Occipital- (1) forms back of skull; spinal cord enters cranium through large hole on occipital bone
    • Sphenoid- (1) forms central part of floor of cranium; pituitary gland located in small depression = turkish saddle
    • Ethmoid- (1) complicated bone that helps form central part of floor of cranium, side walls, roof of nose, and part of middle partition
  26. Face bones
    • Nasal- (2) small bones that form upper bridge of nose
    • Maxilla- (2) upper jaw bones; helps form roof of mouth, floor & side walls of nose & floor of orbit; large cavity in maxillary bone is maxillary sinus
    • Zygomatic- (2) Cheek bones; also help form orbit
    • Mandible- (1) lower jaw bone articulates with temporal bone at condyloid process; small anterior hole for passage of nerves & vessels = mental foramen
    • Lacrimal- (2) small bones, helps form medial wall of eye sockets & side wall of nasal cavity
    • Palatine- (2) form back part of roof of mouth & floor & side walls of nose & part of floor of orbit
    • Inferior concha- (2) formed curved "ledge" along inside of side wall of nose, below middle concha
    • Vomer- (1) forms lower back part of nasal septum
  27. Ear bones
    Malleus- (2) malleus, incus, & stapes are tiny bones in middle ear cavity in temporal bone; malleus means "hammer"- shape of bone
  28. Sinuses
    spaces or cavities inside some of the cranial bones (4 pairs: frontal, maxillary, sphenoid, & ethmoid bones) have openings into the nose referred to paranasal sinuses
  29. Mastoiditis
    inflammation of the air spaces within the mastoid portion of the temporal bone, can produce serious medical problems if untreated
  30. Suture
    immovable joint

    • lambdoidal suture- w/ occipital bone
    • squamous suture- w/ tewmporal bone & part of sphenoid
    • coronal suture- w/ frontal bone