Biology Chapter 32

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akcinloor
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127117
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Biology Chapter 32
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2012-01-16 20:05:39
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Biology Chapter 32
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  1. extant
    speices currently living
  2. extinct
    species no longer living
  3. heterotrophic
    hetero: different source, trophic: food/nutrition
  4. autotrophic
    makes their own food/energy
  5. tissue
    collection of specialized cells segreagated or separate from the rest of the body
  6. larva
    sexually immature form of the animal, may look different from adult or not, feeds differently, and will undergo metamorphosis, morphologically distinct from adult
  7. metamorphosis
    larva goes from sexually immature to juvenile stage, not quite adult still sexually immature
  8. Hox genes
    regulatory genes that control the expression (transcription) of other genes during embryonic development
  9. ectoderm
    outside layer of cells will form skin of the animal or central nervous system
  10. endoderm
    "inside" ; digestive tract, digestive tract starts outside the body, ex: the mouth is outside in the world when you open it and put something in thats from outside the body, line digestive tract; liver and lungs or vertebrates
  11. zoic
    suffix that refers to the study of geology
  12. neoprotero
    "neoprotero" end of proterozoic era
  13. paleo
    ancient, old. primative, early, way back when
  14. meso
    middle, intermediate
  15. ceno
    new or recent or common
  16. radial
    no front or back, no left or right
  17. sessile
    fixed to a substrate, ex: anemone
  18. planktonic
    drifiting, ex: sea jelly
  19. bilateral
    top and bottom ( dorsal and ventral, left and right, front and back ( anterior and posterior)
  20. dorsal
    top
  21. ventral
    bottom
  22. anterior
    front
  23. posterior
    back
  24. cephalization
    concentration of nervous system (i.e. the brain) at anterior ( in the front of the animal)
  25. mesoderm
    found in muscles and all other organisms, fills space between the ectoderm and endoderm
  26. diploblastic
    two germ layers of tissue
  27. triploblastic
    three germ layers of tissue
  28. coelom
    fluid filled or air filled cavities, houses organs, found between digestive tract and body wall, suspends organs away from body wall (doesn't interfere with growth) , provides cushioning and protects organs from injury
  29. true coelom
    cavities found within the mesoderm
  30. coelomates
    animals with a coelom in the mesoderm
  31. pseudocelomate
    coeolom is located between the endoderm and mesoderm
  32. acoelomate
    still has organs but no suspension because they are within the tissue, no cavities
  33. germ layer
    concentric layers, form various tissues and organs of the body
  34. protostome
    • 1: spiral cleavage
    • (first mouth or mouth forms first) ; if you draw a vertical axis , the cells are offset and aligned diagonally ( sprial cleavage) , each cell's fate has already been determined,

    • 2: coelom formation
    • coelom formation is split in the mesoderm between the endoderm and ectoderm,

    • 3: fate blastopore
    • blastopore forms mouth, then anus
  35. spiral cleavage
    planes of cell divison are diagonal to the vertical axis of the embryo, smaller cells are centered over the grooves between larger , underlying cells
  36. grade
    group whose members share key biological features
  37. clade
    a group that includes an ancestral species and all of its descendants
  38. deuterostome
    • 1: radial cleavage
    • (mouth forms second) cells are on top of each other ( radial cleavage) symmetrical if the axis drawn vertically and horizontally, devolops as a whole organism because its cells are not fixed or determined

    • 2: coelom formation
    • coelom formed in mesoderm

    • 3: fate of blastospore
    • anus formed first, then mouth
  39. determinate cleavage
    fate of each cell is " fixed" , each piece (cell) is part of a whole, you take away one part and its not complete anymore
  40. indeterminate cleavage
    cell fate not yet fixed, cells haven't been gived instructions so blastula will continue to grow as a whole
  41. phylogeny
    the development or evolution of a particular group of organisms
  42. morphology
    the branch of biology dealing with the form and structure of organisms, the form and structure of an organism considered as a whole
  43. eumetazoa
    true animal, ( eu means true and zoa means animal)
  44. cleavage
    succession of mitotic cell divisions without cell growth between divisions
  45. blastula
    hollow ball of cells
  46. gastrulation
    layers of embryonic tissue develop into adult body parts
  47. gastrula
    product of gastrulation
  48. eidacaran biota
    a group of soft-bodied multicellular eukaryotes found in the hills of Ediacara in Australia, 1st evidence of multicellular animals
  49. cambrian explosion
    dramatic increase in animal diversity, one of the most important events to happen on earth, about 1/2 of extant life descends from hear

    • 4 theories:
    • -predator prey relationships
    • -increased oxygen
    • -evolution of Hox genes
    • -all of the above
  50. blastopore
    indentation during gasturlation leads to the formation of the archentron
  51. Paleozoic Era
    542-251 million years ago

    • -Cambrian Explosion
    • - post cambrian:
    • +mass extinctions
    • +fish dominanted
    • +460 mya land colonization occured
    • +360 mya two main groups survive today amphibians and amniotes ( reptiles and animals)
    • +millipedes and centipedes on land
    • +ferns created galls in response to insects
  52. 3 lines of evidence
    1: DNA sequencing, choanoflagellates are the closest to humans on the phylogentic tree and share genes exclusively found in animals

    2: Choanoflagellates and collar cells are almost indistiquishable, because they look so similar, a single cell organism (choanoflagellate) resembles one single collar cell

    3: Similar cell are found in jellies, sea stars ( non-vertabretes , no fungi or plants) , similar collar cells found in choanoflagellates are found in jellies, sea stars ( no plants or fungi)
  53. Neoproterozoic era
    1000-542 mya or 1- .542 bya

    • -fossil evidence of animals found
    • -earliest you can go back with fossil evidence
    • -increase in animal diversity
    • -ediacaran biota: earliest evidence of animals
  54. mesozoic era
    251 to 65.5 mya

    • - no new diversity
    • -niche specialization
    • -some reptiles returned to aquatic habitats
    • -wings and flight have evolved in certain creatures
    • -large and small dinosaurs on earth
    • -first mammals
    • -dramatic diversification of flowering plants and insects

    (between mesozoic and cenazoic dinosaurs went extinct)
  55. cenozoic era
    65.5 mya to present

    • -mass extinctions
    • -large mammals are found to replace dinosaurs
  56. symmetry
    been around for 550 my, able to cut in half and have a mirror image
  57. Shared agreement: morphology and DNA analysis
    • -all animals are monophyletic ( share a common ancestor)
    • -sponges are basal animals
    • -eumetazoa is a clade with true tissue
    • -most animals are bilaterian ( belong to bilateria clade)
    • -chordates=deuterostomia, ( belong to clade of deuterostomia)
  58. What about difference between morphology and DNA anylysis?
    • 1: how ( method used ) can result in different data
    • 2: who is right? ( in approach)
    • 3: moleular genetics ( which genes? ) want the most accurate picture/data
  59. ecdysozoans
    • chracteristic shared by nematodes, anthropods
    • - these animals secrete external skeletons ( exoskeletons)
  60. ecdysis
    • process of shedding the old exoskeleton
    • -clade name suggests common ancestory by molecular data
  61. lophotrochozoans
    refers to two different features found in this clade: lophophore and trochophore larva
  62. lophopore
    • a structure ( from the Greek lophos, crest and pherein to carry)
    • -a crown of ciliated tentacles that fuction in feeding
  63. trochophore larva
    distinctive developmental stage mollucs and annelids go through

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