3 - Key Pathogens.txt

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circleslash
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127134
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3 - Key Pathogens.txt
Updated:
2012-01-11 20:20:02
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ID Block Exam One
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Forgive me for any typos. I was typing like a mad man! Use at your own risk! Don't blame me if you don't catch my mistakes! :P
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  1. Reminder: You may have to scroll up on some of the answers! And please let me know if you find any mistakes!
    Thank you!
  2. GP Cocci Clusters (Pathogens)
    • Staphylococcus
    • - S. aureus
    • - S. epidermidis
  3. GP Pairs and Chains (Pathogens)
    • Streptococcus
    • - S. pneuomoniae
    • - S. pyogenes (GAS)
    • - S. agalactiae (GBS)

    • Enterococcus
    • - E. faecALIS
    • - E. faesCIUM (tougher and stronger of the two)
  4. GP Bacilli (Pathogens)
    Listeria monocytogenes
  5. GN Cocci Pairs and Chains (Pathogens)
    • Neisseria sp.
    • Moraxella catarrhalis
  6. GN Bacilli
    • Enterobacteriaceae:
    • - Morganella sp.
    • - Escherichiia coli
    • - Klebsiella sp.
    • - Serratia sp.
    • - Proteus sp.
    • - Enterobacter sp.
    • - Citrobacter sp.
    • "MEK SPEC"

    • Pseudomonads
    • - Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    • - Acinetobacter sp.
  7. GN Coccobacilli football-shaped (Pathogens)
    Haemohilius sp.
  8. Atypicals
    • Legionella pneumophila
    • Chlamydia sp.
    • Mycoplasma pneumoniae
  9. Anarobes
    • GP: Clostridium sp.
    • GN: Bacteroides sp.
  10. Is s. aureus a jock or a nerd?
    • Both!
    • MSSA (Some B-lactams will work)
    • MRSA (No B-lactams will work)
  11. What is the type and shape of staph aureus?
    GP cocci clusters
  12. 95% of s. aureus produces what?
    A beta-lactamase called "penicillnase"
  13. Methicillin resistance is attributed to what?
    mecA gene
  14. What are the 2 major categories of MRSA?
    • HA-MRSA (Healthcare associated)
    • - Epidemiology: 37% skin/soft tissue

    • CA-MRSA (Community associated)
    • - Epidemiology: 74% skin/skin structure
  15. What are some RELIABLE Anti-MRSA antibiotics?
    • Vancomycin
    • Daptomycin
    • Ceftaroline
    • Linezolid (PO)
    • Tigecycline
    • Telavancine
    • TMP/SMX (PO)

    "Van Da Chef Likes Tiger Tails & TeMPura"
  16. What are some LESS RELIABLE Anti-MRSA antibiotics?
    • Doxycycline
    • Clindamycin

    "the Docs at the CLINic is not reliable"
  17. Infrequently used Anti-MRSA antibiotics:
    • Quinupristin
    • Dalfopristin
    • Chloramphenicol
    • Nitrofurantoin
    • Rifampin

    "Quinn Da Colored Ninja 'infrequently uses' Reefer"
  18. What is the type and shape of s. epidermidis? AKA?
    GP cocci clusters

    • AKA:
    • - Coagulase-negative Staph (CoNS)
    • - Staph no aureus (SNA)
  19. Are CoNS or SNA's virulent or pathogenic?
    • No, they're NERDs.
    • - Production of biofilm
    • - Multi-drug resistant
    • - Treat with RELIABLE anti-MRSA
  20. What are some common staph epidermidis infections?
    • Catheter-related bloodstream/UTI
    • Skin/skin structure infections (cellulitis)
    • Prosthetic joint infection
    • Prosthetic valve endocarditis
  21. What is the type and shape of strep pneuomoniae? AKA?
    GP cocci pairs/chains

    AKA: pneumococcus
  22. Is pneumococcus virulent and pathogenic?
    • Yes, it's a JOCK! (mostly)
    • - Encapsulated

    But it's becoming a NERD as well!

    • Resistance starting to emerge against:
    • - Macrolides
    • - B-lactams
    • - FQ
  23. Staph pneumoniae is the most common cause of:
    • Community acquired pneumonia
    • Bacterial meningitis
  24. What types of infections can s. pnuemoniae cause?
    • Sinusitis
    • Otitus media
    • Skin/skin structure infections (not common)
    • Much much more
  25. What is the type and shape of strep pyogenes? AKA?
    GP cocci pairs/chains

    • AKA:
    • - Group A Strep (GAS)
    • - Flesh eating bacteria
  26. Is Group A Strep virulent and pathogenic?
    • Yes, it's a JOCK!
    • - Toxin producer
    • - Causes tissue necrosis

    Still sensitive to PCN
  27. Strep pyogenes is a common cause of:
    • Strep throat
    • Skin/skin structure infection
    • TOXIC SHOCK SYNDROME
  28. What is the type and shape of strep agalactiae? AKA?
    GP cocci pair/chains

    AKA: Group G Strep (GBS)
  29. GBS is normally colonized where?
    • Normal vaginal flora in 40% of women.
    • - Tested during pregnancy
    • - Treated continuously during delivery
  30. What's the most common cause of neonatal sepsis?
    • Strep agalactiae
    • - Can cause many other infections but usually only in immunocompromised patients
  31. What is the type and shape of enterococcus faecalis and faceium? And where is it normally colonized?
    GP cocci pairs/chains

    Normal flora of GI tract, skin and mouth
  32. T/F: Faecalis is more resistant than faecium.
    • False!
    • Think faecaLIS = LESS
    • VRE is more often faecium.
  33. Enterococcus faecali and faecium is common cause of:
    • Nosocomial (hospital acquired)
    • - Bacteremia
    • - Endocarditis
    • - UTI
    • - Wound infections
  34. T/F: Listeria monocytogenes is a GN cocci.
    • False!
    • It's a GP rod
  35. Define listeriosis.
    An infection caused by eating contaminated food
  36. People who are at risk of listeriosis should avoid:
    • Hot dogs
    • Soft cheeses
    • Pate or meat spreads
    • Smoked seafood
    • Raw (UNpasteurized mild)
  37. Clinical manifestations of listeriosis:
    • Healthy adults:
    • - usually asymptomatic or mild flu-like disease

    • Pregnant women, newborns, immunocompromised:
    • - Range from mild flu-like symptoms to meningitis and/or meningeoncephalitis
  38. T/F: Listeria monocytogenes infections of the fetus is extremely uncommon and can lead to abortion, stillbirth, or delivery of an acutely ill infant.
    • False!
    • It's extremely COMMON.
  39. GN Rod General Rules: Common bacteria in???
    GI tract
  40. GN Rod General Rules: Just about any antibiotic with GN activity will have intrinsic activity except (fill in the blank).
    • Pseudomonas
    • Acinetobacter
  41. GN Rod General Rules: Antibiotic susceptibilities vary widely dependent upon (fill in the blank).
    resistance mechanisms
  42. GN Rod General Rules: First line = ??? Exceptions?
    • First line = "narrowest spectrum" B-lactam
    • Ex: Don't use IMIPENEM when CEPHALEXIN is sensitive.
  43. GN Rod General Rules: Second line = ???
    • Aminoglycoside
    • Tetracycline
    • Fluoroquinolone
    • Macrolide

    "All Time Favorite Mistress" (Get it? Second chick?)
  44. What is the type and shape of neisseria sp? NERD or JOCK?
    GN cocci (diplococci) pairs/chains

    • JOCK
    • - Encapsulated
  45. Neisseria meningitidis is the (blank 1) common pathogen in bacterial meningitis, and it passed by exchange of (blank 2).
    • 1. second most
    • 2. saliva or respiratory secretions
  46. T/F: N. gonorrhoeae is more dangerous than n. meningitidis.
    • False!
    • Meningitidis is the more dangerous of the two.
    • - Vaccine available
  47. Small % of population is colonized with n. meningitidis in (blank).
    sinus cavity
  48. N. gonorrhoeae, AKA (blank 1) and is normal flora in (blank 2)
    • 1. gonococcus
    • 2. It is NOT normal flora.
  49. N. gonorrhoeae is passed by???
    • Direct MUCOSAL contact during sexual interaction.
    • - Can also cause NEONATAL infections if mother is infected.
  50. What is the type and shape for moraxella catarrhalis? It's also a common cause of what?
    GN cocci (diplococci) pairs/chains

    • Common cause of URTIs
    • - Otitis media (3rd most common cause)
    • - Laryngitis, sinusitis, bronchitis
  51. Maraxella catarrhalis is also a (LESS COMMON) cause of:
    • Pneumonia
    • Bacteremia
    • Meningitis
  52. T/F: E. coli and klebsiella are BOTH GN rods and are the two MOST common bacteria in the GI tract.
    • False!
    • Yes, they are both GN rods but...
    • B. FRAGILIS is the most common bacteria in the GI tract.

    E. coli is the most common AEROBIC bacteria in the GI tract.
  53. T/F: E. coli is the MOST common pathogen for community and hospital-associated.
    True!
  54. Because of their high prevalence in/on our body, e. coli and klebsiella causes multiple other infections such as:
    • Bacteremia
    • Intra-abdominal
    • Wound
    • Healthcare associated pneumonia.
  55. E. coli 0157 is a common cause of (blank).
    • Food-borne illness
    • - NON-harmful in cattle, but TOXIC in humans.
  56. E. Coli and klebsiella the are the two MOST common producers of what?
    ESBL: Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase
  57. The common producers of ampC B-lactamase:
    • Serratia
    • Proteus
    • Pseudomonas
    • Acinetobacter
    • Citrobacter
    • Enterobacter
    • Moranella

    Because many of these pathogens are multi-drug resistant, susceptibility testing is required.
  58. AmpC B-lactamase deactivates ALL B-lactams except:
    • Cefepime
    • Carbapenems
  59. Antibiotics with (blank) coverage will have intrinsic activity against SPACE-M pathogens.
    GN
  60. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a (blank 1), found in soil or water outside of the (blank).is a common cause of (blank 2). Normal flora in (blank 3).
    • 1. GN rod
    • 2. Found in soil of water outside the hospital
    • 3. Not normal flora
  61. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common cause of (blank).
    • Healthcare-associated:
    • - Pneumonia (second leading pathogen to MRSA
    • - Blood stream infections
    • - Wound infection
    • - Post-op infection
    • - UTI
  62. Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization can happen (blank).
    • Hospitalized pts:
    • - Chronic ventilator pts
    • - Indwelling catheters or g-tubes
  63. T/F: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is BOTH a NERD and a JOCK.
    True!
  64. Pseudomonas aeruginosa active PCN:
    • Piperacillin/tazobactam
    • Ticarcillin/clavulanic
  65. Pseudomonas aeruginosa active Cephalosporins:
    • Ceftazidime
    • Cefepime
  66. Pseudomonas aeruginosa active Carbapenem:
    • Imipenem/cilastatin
    • Meropenem
    • Poripenem
  67. Pseudomonas aeruginosa active Monobactam:
    Aztreonam
  68. Pseudomonas aeruginosa active Aminoglycosides:
    • Gentamicin
    • Tobramycin
    • Amikacin
  69. Pseudomonas aeruginosa active FQ:
    • Ciprofloxicin
    • Levofloxacin
  70. Pseudomonas aeruginosa active Polymixin:
    Colistin
  71. Acinetobacter sp. is a GN (blank 1), but can become (blank 2) shaped in stationary phase. NERD or Jock?
    • 1. Rod
    • 2. Coccoid

    NERD!
  72. Acinetobacter sp. is mostly found in (blank)
    • Hospital in/on equipment
    • - Can live for days to weeks on inanimate objects
    • - Infection control is best defense against Acinetobacter.
  73. Acinetobacter has a HIGH mortality rate due:
    - Severity of illness of pt, NOT due to pathogen virulence.

    - Infected pt was already faily sick or immunocompromised.
  74. Acinetobacter sp. causes:
    • Pneumonia (mostly in ventilated pts)
    • Infection in open wound
    • Line infection

    -Pt must have pre-existing break in natural immuninity
  75. H. influenzae is a (type and shape?) bacteria and usually causes (blank) in children. NERD or JOCK?
    GN coccobacilli (football-shaped)

    • Causes (usually in children):
    • CAP
    • Meningitis
    • Sinusitis
    • Otitis media
    • Conjunctivitis

    It's a JOCK!
  76. T/F: H. Influenzae is NOT encapsulated.
    • False!
    • It IS encapsulated.
  77. Legionella pneumophila, Chlamydia sp. and Mycoplasma pneumoniae are what type of bacteria, and what do they normally cause?
    Atypical

    • All causes REPIRATORY TRACT infections.
    • -Constitue to about 25% of CAP pathogens.
  78. Legionella pneumophila is also known as (blank 1) and is usually found in (blank 2).
    • 1. Pontiac Fever and Legionnaires' disease.
    • 2. Usually found in water, dispersed via AC vents.
  79. Clostridium sp. is a (type and shape?) of bacteria.
    GP rod ANaerobe, spore former
  80. What causes botulism?
    • Clostridium botulinum
    • Associated with honey and home canned food.
  81. Botulism can cause (blank 1) And is treated with what antibiotic?
    1. paralysis from toxin.

    • That is why there are NO antibiotics for it.
    • Need ANTITOXIN - Trivalent (A, B, E)
  82. Tetanus is cause by what?
    • Clostridium tetani
    • Associated with puncture wounds
  83. Tenanus can cause (blank) and is treated with (blank).
    • Causes repeated synapse firing from toxins resulting in:
    • Muscle spasms
    • Hyperreflexia
    • Seizures

    • Treated with:
    • Penicillin
    • Surgery
    • Muscle relaxants
    • Booster shot Q 10 years
  84. Gas gangrene is caused by (blank).
    Clostridium perfringens
  85. Gas gangrene causes (blank 1) and is treated with (blank 2).
    1. Produces toxin and ACIDIC ENZYMES that causes TISSUE NECROSIS.

    • 2. Treated with:
    • Antitoxin
    • Surgery
    • Hyperbaric chamber
  86. CDAD is caused (Blank)
    Clostridium difficile (duh!)

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