Module 6 Lesson 4: VMFS Datastores - VMware vSphere 4.1 Study Flash Cards

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Module 6 Lesson 4: VMFS Datastores - VMware vSphere 4.1 Study Flash Cards
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Module 6 Lesson 4: VMFS Datastores - VMware vSphere 4.1 Study Flash Cards
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  1. Using a VMFS Datastore with ESX/ESXi

    What do VMFS datastores primarily serve as repositories for?
    VMFS datastores primarily serve as repositories for the files of virtual machines.
  2. Using a VMFS Datastore with ESX/ESXi

    What is the maximum size of a VMFS datastore/volume ?
    The maximum size of a VMFS datastore is 64TB.
  3. Using a VMFS Datastore with ESX/ESXi

    A VMFS datastore is optimized for storing and accessing small files. True or False?

    If False, Why?
    False. A VMFS datastore is optimized for storing and accessing large file like virtual disks and memory images of suspended virtual machines.
  4. Using a VMFS Datastore with ESX/ESXi

    A RDM can be stored on NFS and VMFS datastores. True or False?

    If False, Why?
    RDMs can not be stored on NFS datastores. A RDM must be located on a VMFS datastore.
  5. Using a VMFS Datastore with ESX/ESXi

    When would you choose RDMs over VMFS datastores?
    Choose RDMS over VMFS datastores if:

    • A virtual machine is using SAN snapshot applications
    • A virtual machine is clustered with a physical machine using MSCS
    • You want to keep the virtual machine's data on a raw disk instead of converting it to a virtual disk. eg... data disk is very large
  6. Using a VMFS Datastore with ESX/ESXi

    You cannot use MSCS to cluster a virtual machine that resides on an NFS datastore. True or False?

    If False, Why?
    True.
  7. Creating a VMFS Datastore

    What are the steps to access the Add Storage Wizard using the vSphere vClient?
    • 1. Select your host in the inventory and click the Configuration tab.
    • 2. Select Storage from the Hardware list.
    • 3. Click the Add Storage link.
  8. Creating a VMFS Datastore

    What are the Storage Wizard choices required for the creation of a VMFS datastore?
    • 1. Select Disk/LUN as the storage type
    • 2. Select a device to use for you datastore.
    • 3. Enter a datastore name.
    • 4. Specify the maximum size of the VMFS datastore.
  9. Viewing VMFS Datastores

    Name two ways to view information about VMFS datastores?
    • 1. Clicking the Storage link in the host's Configuration tab.
    • 2. View the Show all Datastores report in the host's Storage Views tab.
  10. Browsing Datastore Contents

    Name/list the steps to browse a datastore.
    • 1. Select your host in the inventory
    • 2. Click the Configuration tab.
    • 3. Click the Storage link.
    • 4. From the Datastore pane, right-click the datastore and select Browse Datastore.
  11. Managing Overcommitted Datastores

    When does datastore overcommitment occur?
    An overcommitted datastore occurs when ther are many thin-provisioned virtual disks that use close to their maximum alloted disk space.
  12. Managing Overcommitted Datastores

    What happens when a datastore reaches capacity?
    When a datastore reaches capacity, the vSphere Client prompts you to provide more space on the underlying VMFS datastore and freezes the virtual machine until you do so.
  13. Managing Overcommitted Datastores

    How can you monitor datastore capacity?
    Monitor datastore capacity by using alarms to generate alert notifications on how much a datastore's disks are overallocated or on how much disk space a virtual machine is using.
  14. Managing Overcommitted Datastores

    What are two ways to address/mitigate datastore capacity issues on a particular datastore?
    • 1. Dynamically increase the size of the datastore.
    • 2. Storage vMotion - migrate virtual machines off the datastore. The migration can be done with a change from virtual disks of thick format to thin format at the target datastore.
  15. Increasing the Size of a VMFS Datastore

    The capacity of a VMFS datastore can be dynamically increased. True or False?

    If False, Why?
    True.
  16. Increasing the Size of a VMFS Datastore

    What are three reasons to increase the size of a VMFS datastore?
    • 1. Provide added space to store virtual machine files.
    • 2. Possibly improve performance.
    • 3. Address/mitigate space usage issues
  17. Increasing the Size of a VMFS Datastore

    What are two ways/methods to dynamically increase the size of a VMFS datastore?
    • 1. Add an extent (LUN) to the VMFS datastore - An extent is a partition. You can add a new extent to any VMFS datastore. The datastore can stretch over multiple extents, up to 32.
    • 2. Expand the VMFS datastore - Increase the size of the VMFS datastore within its extent. Only extents with free space immediately after them are expandable. As a result, rather than adding the new extent, you can expand the existing extent so that is fills the available adjacent capacity.
  18. Increasing the Size of a VMFS Datastore

    Up to how many extents can a VMFS datastore can stretch over?
    32 extents - each up to 2TB
  19. Increasing the Size of a VMFS Datastore

    How can you shrink a VMFS datastore?
    You can expand but cannot shrink a VMFS datastore.
  20. Comparing Methods for Increasing VMFS Datastore Size

    How many extents are required for a 9TB VMFS datastore if using the maxmium size for each extent.
    5 extents. The maximum size of a VMFS extent is 2TB.
  21. Comparing Methods for Increasing VMFS Datastore Size

    Name the two methods to dynamically increase the size of a VMFS datastore and indicate which of the two requires powering off virtual machines.

    • 1. Add an extent (LUN) to the VMFS datastore
    • 2. Expand the VMFS datastore

    Niether method requires powering off the virtural machines.
  22. Comparing Methods for Increasing VMFS Datastore Size

    What is required to increase the size of a 50GB VMFS datastore on a 50GB underlying LUN array, to a 100GB VMFS datastore?
    • 1. Increase the underlying LUN to at least 100GB using an array management utility
    • 2. Expand the datastore within the extent to use the newly provisioned 50 or more GB of space.
  23. Comparing Methods for Increasing VMFS Datastore Size

    What does the first extent of a VMFS extent set contain for the entire extent set?
    The first extent contains the metadata for the entire extent set.*

    * If the master LUN (extent) is lost, all data on the entire extent set might be lost.
  24. Comparing Methods for Increasing VMFS Datastore Size

    When you add an extent to a datastore, the new extent is not dependent on the first extent. True or False?

    If False, Why?
    False. If the master LUN (extent) is lost, all data on the entire extent set might be lost.
  25. Comparing Methods for Increasing VMFS Datastore Size

    The two methods (1. Add an extent (LUN) to the VMFS datastore, 2. Expand the VMFS datastore) of increasing a VMFS datastore also apply to RDMs (raw LUNs). True or False?

    If False, Why?
    False. If you expand an RDM's underlying raw LUN on the array, you have to remove the RDM and re-create it to pick up the new size attributes.
  26. Before increasing the Size of a VMFS Datastore

    In general, before making storage allocation changes such as increasing the size of a VMFS datatore, what are three good practices?
    • 1. Perform a rescan to ensure the host sees the most current storage view/availablity.
    • 2. For maximum safety, quiesce I/O on all disks involved.
    • 3. Note the unique identifier (for example, the NAA ID) of the volume to be expanded - will be required by the wizard.
  27. Deleting a VMFS Datastore

    What happens to the pointers to files on a datastore when a VMFS datastore is deleted?
    Deleting a VMFS datastore permanently deletes the pointers to the files on the datastore, so the files cannot be retrieved.
  28. Deleting a VMFS Datastore

    Before you delete a datastore what should you do with the virtual machines whose disks reside on the datastore?
    Stop all virtual machines on the datastore.
  29. Deleting a VMFS Datastore

    What are the steps to delete a VMFS datastore?
    • 1. Click the Storage link in the host's Configuration tab.
    • 2. Right-click the VMFS datastore and select Delete. When prompted, confirm the datastore removal.
  30. Multipathing with Fibre Channel

    What does ESX/ESXi support to maintain a constant connection between a host and its storage?
    ESX/ESXi supports Fibre Channel multipathing.
  31. Multipathing with Fibre Channel

    What is multipathing?
    Multipathing is a technique that lets you use more than one physical path for transferring data betweeen the host and an external storage device.
  32. Multipathing with Fibre Channel

    What does multipathing offer in addition to path failover?
    In addition to path failover, multipathing offers load balancing.
  33. Multipathing with Fibre Channel

    What is load balancing responsible for?
    Load balancing is responsible for redistributing I/O loads between multiple paths, thus reducing or removing potential bottlenecks.
  34. Multipathing with Fibre Channel

    What should ESX/ESXi hosts' Fibre Channel SAN network have to support multipathing.
    ESX/ESXi hosts should typically have two or more HBAs available from which the storage array can be reached through one or more FC switches. Or the setup might include one HBA and two SPs so that the HBA can use a different path to reach the disk array.
  35. Multipathing with iSCSI Storage

    When setting up your ESX/ESXi host for multipathing and failover, you can use one hardware iSCSI adapter or one NIC depending on the type of iSCSI initiator on your host. True or False?
    False. iSCSI multipathing requires multiple hardware iSCSI adapters or multiple NICs depending on the type of iSCSI initiators on your host.
  36. Multipathing with iSCSI Storage

    With hardware iSCSI the host typically has two or more __ available from which the storage system can be reached using one or more __. Alternatively, the setup might include __ and two __ so that the adapter can use a different path to reach the storage system.
    With hardware iSCSI the host typically has two or more hardware iSCSI adapters available from which the storage system can be reached using one or more switches. Alternatively, the setup might include one adapter and two storage processors so that the adapter can use a different path to reach the storage system.
  37. Multipathing with iSCSI Storage

    With software iSCSI and dependent hardware iSCSI how can you provide failover for iSCSI connections between your host and iSCSI storage systems?
    You can provide failover by using multiple NICs for iSCSI connections between your host and iSCSI storage systems.
  38. Multipathing with iSCSI Storage

    With software iSCSI and dependent hardware iSCSI using multiple NICs, because multipathing plug-ins do not have direct access to physical NICs on your host, what do you need to connect to each physical NIC?
    You first need to connect each physical NIC to a separate VMkernel port.
  39. Multipathing with iSCSI Storage

    With software iSCSI and dependent hardware iSCSI using multiple NICs because multipathing plug-ins do not have direct access to physical NICs on your host, in addition to connecting each physical NIC to a separate VMkernel port, what should you then use to associate all VMkernel ports with the iSCSI initiator?
    Use a port-binding technique to associate all VMkernel ports with the iSCSI initiator.

    As a result , each VMernel port connected to a separate NIC becomes a different path that the iSCSI storage stack and its multipathing plug-in can use.
  40. Multipathing with iSCSI Storage

    How can you achieve Hardware iSCSI mutlitpathing to iSCSI storage?
    Use two or more hardware iSCSI adapters.
  41. Multipathing with iSCSI Storage

    How can you achieve software or dependent hardware iSCSI mutlitpathing to iSCSI storage?
    • 1. Use multiple NICs
    • 2. Connect each NIC to a separate VMkernel port
    • 3. Associate VMkernel ports with the iSCSI initiator
  42. Managing Multiple Storage Paths

    Multiple paths can exist to one datastore from an ESX/ESXi host. True or Fasle?

    If False, Why?
    True.
  43. Managing Multiple Storage Paths

    What are the steps to modify a datastore's storage path information?
    • 1. Click the host's Configuration tab.
    • 2. Click the Storage link.
    • 3. Right-click the datastore and selet Properties.
  44. Configuring Storage Load Balancing

    What are the Fibre Channel or iSCSI supported multipathing path selection policies?
    • Fixed - The host always uses the preferred path to the disk when the path is available. If if cannot access the disk through the preferred path, it tries the alternative paths. Fixed is the default policy for active-active storages devices.
    • Most Recently Used - The host uses the most recent path to the disk until this path becomes unavailable. That is, the host does not revert back to the preferred path. Most Recently Used is the default policy for active-passive storage devices and is required for those devices.
    • Round Robin - The host uses a path-selection algorithm that rotates through all available paths. In addition to path failover, the Round Robin policy supports load balancing across the paths. Before using this policy, check with storage vendors to find out if a Round Robin configuration is supported on their storage.
  45. Configuring Storage Load Balancing

    What path selection policy exist for scalability?
    Round Robin - A multipathing policy that performs load balancing across paths.
  46. Configuring Storage Load Balancing

    What path selection policy exist for availability?
    • MRU (Most Recently Used)
    • Fixed
  47. Configuring Storage Load Balancing

    What is the default multipathing path selection policy for active-active storage devices?
    Fixed.
  48. Configuring Storage Load Balancing

    What is the default multipathing path selection policy for active-passive storage devices?
    Most Recently Used - MRU is the default policy for active-passive storage devices and is required for those devices.
  49. Configuring Storage Load Balancing

    What does the Round Robin multipathing path selection policy support in addition to load balancing across paths?
    Path failover.
  50. Configuring Storage Load Balancing

    What are the steps to set the path selection policy for a datastore.
    • 1. Click the host's Configuration tab.
    • 2. Click the Storage link.
    • 3. Right-click the datastore and selet Properties.
    • 4. In the datastore Porperties dialog box, click Manage Paths.
    • 5. Select a path selection policy from the Path Selection drop-down menu.
  51. Pluggable Storage Architecture

    What is the Pluggable Storage Architecture (PSA)?
    The Pluggable Storage Architecture is a VMkernel layer responsible for managing multiple storage paths.
  52. Pluggable Storage Architecture

    What is the Pluggable Storage Architecture a collection of?
    PSA is a collection of VMkernel APIs that allow third-party vendors to insert code directly into the ESX/ESXi storage I/O path.
  53. Pluggable Storage Architecture

    What is the code the PSA allows third-party vendors to insert directly in the ESX/ESXi storage I/O path called.
    The code is called multipathing plug-ins (MPPs).
  54. Pluggable Storage Architecture

    What is the MPP (multipathing plug-in) VMware provides by default called?
    Native Multipathing Plug-in (NMP).
  55. Pluggable Storage Architecture

    What MPPs does PSA coordinates the operation of?
    PSA coordinates the operation of the NMP (Native Multipathing Plug-in) and third-parthy MPPs (multipathing plug-ins).
  56. Pluggable Storage Architecture

    Give three examles of VMware path selection policies (PSPs) VMware's PSA uses for its native load-balancing and failover mechanisms.
    • 1. Fixed
    • 2. Most Recently Used (MRU)
    • 3. Round Robin (RR).
  57. Pluggable Storage Architecture

    What is VMW_SATP_LOCAL?
    VMW_SATP_LOCAL is the VMware generic SATP (Storage Array Type Plug-in) for storage arrays.
  58. Pluggable Storage Architecture

    What is VMW_SATP_CX?
    VMW_SATP_CX is the VMware SATP (Storage Array Type Plug-in) for the storage array CX3-40.

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