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What is the basic tenet of pharmacology?
For most drugs their effects are directly proportional to the concentration of their active forms at receptors
Time to onset of effect
time to peak effect
What are the factors controlling concentration of active form of a drug at its receptor?
- Therefore the time response curve
the movement of drug from the site of application into the bloodstream
The movement drug between blood and tissues
the conversion of drug to metabolites
the removal of drug from the body to the external environment
What is the dose of drug determined by?
The inherent potency of the drug
What does the frequency of the dose depend on?
- Drug clearance rate (elimination)
- Desired/Target plasma drug concentration
What does pharmacokinetics depend on?
What does pharmacodynamics?
- Receptor interactions
- Signal transduction
- Physiological effect
What is the degree of ionization controlled by?
- pH of surrounding aqueous phase
- whether the drug is a weak acid or weak base
- have charge
- cannot get through membranes
- No charge
- can diffuse through membranes
T/F Molecules are better absorbed at a pH where there is 50% Nonionized
T which is the same as the pka value
What are the three structures for absorption?
- Folds of Kerckring
What is the main factor affecting absorption?
routes of administration
What are the routes of administration?
What are the factors affecting oral absorption?
- Disintegration of dosage form
- Dissolution of particles
- Chemical stability of drug
- Stability of drug to enzymes
- Motility and mixing in GI tract
- Presence and typ of food
- Blood flow to the GI tract
- Gastric emptying time
What are the pharmacokinetic parameters?
- Area under the time concentration curve
- Measures the extent of drug available in systemic circulation
- The observed maximum concentration of drug
- Measure of both the rate of absorption and the extent of drug available in systemic circulation
- The time after administration of drug at which Cmax is observed
- Measure rate of absorption
- area under the moment curve
- Integral product of time and plasma concentration
- Mean residence time
- The average total time molecules of a given dose spends in the body
What is biopharmaceutics?
Study of physical and chemical properties of drugs and their proper dosage as related to the onset, duration, and intensity of drug action under physiological or pathophysical conditions
How are particle size and surface area
They are inversily proportional!!!!!
What is the effective surface area?
The area of solid surface exposed to the dissolution medium
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