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  1. What is the basic tenet of pharmacology?
    For most drugs their effects are directly proportional to the concentration of their active forms at receptors
  2. t1-t0
    Time to onset of effect
  3. t2-t0
    time to peak effect
  4. t3-t1
    duration of action
  5. What are the factors controlling concentration of active form of a drug at its receptor?
    • Therefore the time response curve
    • Absorption
    • Distribution
    • Biotransformation
    • Excretion
  6. define: absorption
    the movement of drug from the site of application into the bloodstream
  7. define: distribution
    The movement drug between blood and tissues
  8. define: biotransformation
    the conversion of drug to metabolites
  9. define: excretion
    the removal of drug from the body to the external environment
  10. What is the dose of drug determined by?
    The inherent potency of the drug
  11. What does the frequency of the dose depend on?
    • Drug clearance rate (elimination)
    • Desired/Target plasma drug concentration
  12. What does pharmacokinetics depend on?
  13. What does pharmacodynamics?
    • Receptor interactions
    • Signal transduction
    • Physiological effect
  14. paracellular
    between cells
  15. transcellular
    accross membranes
  16. What is the degree of ionization controlled by?
    • pka
    • pH of surrounding aqueous phase
    • whether the drug is a weak acid or weak base
  17. Ionized
    • have charge
    • cannot get through membranes
  18. Unionized
    • No charge
    • can diffuse through membranes
  19. T/F Molecules are better absorbed at a pH where there is 50% Nonionized
    T which is the same as the pka value
  20. What are the three structures for absorption?
    • Folds of Kerckring
    • Villi
    • Microvilli
  21. What is the main factor affecting absorption?
    routes of administration
  22. What are the routes of administration?
    • Enteral
    • Parental
    • SKin
    • Lungs
    • Vaginal
    • Eye
  23. What are the factors affecting oral absorption?
    • Disintegration of dosage form
    • Dissolution of particles
    • Chemical stability of drug
    • Stability of drug to enzymes
    • Motility and mixing in GI tract
    • Presence and typ of food
    • Blood flow to the GI tract
    • Gastric emptying time
  24. What are the pharmacokinetic parameters?
    • AUC
    • Cmax
    • Tmax
    • AUMC
    • MRT
  25. AUC
    • Area under the time concentration curve
    • Measures the extent of drug available in systemic circulation
  26. Cmax
    • The observed maximum concentration of drug
    • Measure of both the rate of absorption and the extent of drug available in systemic circulation
  27. Tmax
    • The time after administration of drug at which Cmax is observed
    • Measure rate of absorption
  28. AUMC
    • area under the moment curve
    • Integral product of time and plasma concentration
  29. MRT
    • Mean residence time
    • The average total time molecules of a given dose spends in the body
  30. What is biopharmaceutics?
    Study of physical and chemical properties of drugs and their proper dosage as related to the onset, duration, and intensity of drug action under physiological or pathophysical conditions
  31. How are particle size and surface area
    They are inversily proportional!!!!!
  32. What is the effective surface area?
    The area of solid surface exposed to the dissolution medium
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