Jeopardy for Introduction, Homeostasis, Obesity

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  1. What is an example of incidence?
    Number of new cases of down syndrome is 1 in 700 live births
  2. Which cells are incapable of regeneration?
    Cardiac and skeletal muscles, lens, nerves of the central nervous system, and glomeruli
  3. What causes dilation of endoplasmic reticulum and a decrease in protein synthesis?
    Loss of intracellular K+, increase of intracellular Na+, and accumulation of Ca++ within mitochondria.
  4. A state wide health problem.
  5. What is a definition of prevalence?
    Number that represents all of the cases of a disease
  6. What is hyperplasia?
    Increase in the number of cells
  7. What causes cellular autodigestion after ischemia?
    Increased release of lysosomal enzymes
  8. How does Cushings contribute to obesity?
    Effects of Cortisol - adipose gain and water retention
  9. What is an example of an iatrogenic cause?
    Caused by treatment or by health providers implementation of prescribed treatment (e.g. medical error)
  10. What is an example of a nonsocomial infection?
    Infection acquired within at least 72 hours after hospitalization (MRSA)
  11. What is metaplasia?
    Replacement of normal epithelium of the esophagus with glandular epithelium in individuals with gastric reflux
  12. How do free radicals cause cell damage?
    Breakdown of lipids causing damage to cell membranes with increased permeability
  13. What does the release of free fatty acids contribute to?
    Increased cardiometabolic risk
  14. What is BMI?
    Body Mass Index. Links body weight to health risk.
  15. What is dysplasia?
    Alteration in cellular growth in which morphologic characteristics of the cell are variable and disorderly
  16. What damage can occur after blood flow is restored to an ischemic area?
    Membrane damage, mitochondrial calcium overload and cell necrosis
  17. This peptide hormone promotes inflammation and angiogenesis.
  18. What is necrosis?
    Irreversible process that results in disrupted plasma membrane, shrunken nucleus, dispersed ribosomes
  19. What are maladaptive aspects of hyperplasia, metaplasia, and/or dysplasia?
    Processes by which cells are prone to malignant transformation
  20. What is apoptosis?
    Active process of cellular self-destruction that does not trigger the inflammatory process
  21. How do adipokines contribute to hypertension in the obese?
    By secreting a hormone similar to the Renin-Angiotensin System
  22. What is pathogenesis?
    Pattern of tissue change associated with the development of disease
  23. What are the effects of decreased ATP in cells due to ischemia?
    There is failure of sodium pump fails and increased breakdown of glucose
  24. How do chemicals cause cell injury?
    Toxicity to plasma membranes and formation of free radicals and lipid peroxidation
  25. What is released by adipocytes in response to other metabolic signals?
    Free Fatty Acids
  26. What is morbidity?
    The number of people who have diabetes mellitus.
  27. What causes cells to swell in response to ischemia?
    Increased intracellular sodium and water
  28. Why are there increases in intracellular Na and extracellular K after ischemia?
    Ischemia decreases oxygen to mitochondria which decreases ATP, preventing Na-K pump from functioning
  29. What state caused by the proinflammatory state caused by adipokines?
Card Set:
Jeopardy for Introduction, Homeostasis, Obesity
2012-01-12 18:13:30
Pathophysiology jeopardy

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