THEMES

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Author:
Natalie
ID:
127294
Filename:
THEMES
Updated:
2012-01-11 21:09:10
Tags:
induction deduction fallacies
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Description:
induction, deduction, common fallacies
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  1. Hasty Generalization
    Drawing conclusions from insufficient evidence
  2. Faulty Use of Authority
    failing to acknowledge disagreement among experts
  3. Post Hoc (doubtful cause)
    mistakenly inferring that because one event follows another they have a causal relation
  4. False Analogy
    assuming without sufficient proof that if objects or processes are similar in some ways, then they are similar in other was as well
  5. Ad Hominem
    "Against the man" attacking the arguer rather than the argument or issue
  6. False Dilemma
    simplifying a complex problem into either/or dichotomy
  7. Slippery Slope
    Predicting withoutjustification that one step in a process will lead unavoidably to a second, generally undesirable step
  8. Begging the Question
    making a statement that assumes that the issue being argued has already been decided
  9. Straw Man
    disputing a view similar to, but not the same as, that of the arguer's opponent
  10. Two wrongs make a Right
    Diverting attention from the issue by introducing a new point
  11. Non Sequitur
    "it does not follow" using irrelevant proof to buttress a claim (build it up)
  12. Ad Populum
    "to the people"; playing on the prejudices of the audience
  13. Appeal to Tradition
    A proposal that something should continue because it has traditionally existed or been done that way
  14. Faulty Emotional Appeals
    Basing an arguement on feelings especiallyl pity or fear- often to draw attention away from real issues or conceal another purpose
  15. Fallacy
    errror of reasoning based on faulty use of evidence or incorrect inference
  16. Induction
    Reasoning by which a general statement is reached ont hte basis of particular examples (general to specific)
  17. Deduction
    reasoning by which we establish that a conclusion must be true because the statements on which it is based are true (general to specific)
  18. Inductive leap
    reasoning from what you have learned about a few examples to what you think is true of a whole class of things
  19. Uniformity of nature
    we assume certain conclusions drawn about a subjct will hold true for similiar subjects under similar conditions
  20. Premises
    series of statements
  21. Syllogism
    classic form of deductive reasoning by Aristotle contaning major/minor premisies and conclusion
  22. major premise
    generalization about a large group/class
  23. Minor Premise
    statement about a member of a group/class
  24. Conclusion
    links two propositions (major/minor premise) together
  25. Guilt by association
    fact that two things sharean attribute doesn't mean that they are the same thing
  26. Toulmin Model
    conceptual system of argument devised by the philosopher Stephen Toulmin; claim support and warrant plus backing qualifier and reservation
  27. Claim is like
    conclusion
  28. Support is like
    minor premise
  29. Warrant is like
    Major premise

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