Paper Making

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Paper Making
2012-01-11 21:16:20
Paper making Printmaking

Paper Making terms
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  1. Acid free
    • paper free from any acid content or other substances likely to have a
    • detrimental effect on the paper.
  2. Beater or Hollander
    • introduced mid seventeenth century and superseded the method of preparing pulp
    • by hammering or stamping
    • the rags.
  3. Beating
    • process of reducing raw materials to a fibrous
    • state in the production
  4. Bedplate
    • in a stamper
    • it is a flat plate of iron in the bottom of the trough against which rags
    • are pounded. In a Hollander
    • it has ridges or knives and acts with the beater
    • roll
  5. Calendering
    • process of pressing to smooth or glaze
    • a sheet
    • of paper during the finishing
    • process.
  6. Cellulose
    • - basic substance of paper manufacture derived
    • from plant tissues
  7. Cotton
    • - source of fibre
    • for papermaking, usually in the form of linters
    • or rags.
    • The fibres are strong and flexible and suited to the production of fine papers.
  8. Couch
    • action of transferring sheets of newly formed paper from hand moulds
    • to felt
    • blankets.
  9. Deckle
    • on a hand mould
    • is the removable frame which retains the pulp
    • on the cover
    • while the water drains through. On a Fourdrinier
    • machine, the deckle strap performs the same function on the moving wire
  10. Deckle edge
    • slightly wavy line to the edge of handmade paper, formed by a slight
    • thinning of the edge of the sheet by pulp
    • creeping under the edge of the deckle
    • during forming
    • of the sheet.
  11. felts
    • material woven from either cotton or wool with a raised surface which
    • supports the wet sheet of paper during the stages of removal of water.
  12. Forming
    • the action of making a sheet of paper by dipping
    • the mould
    • into a vat
    • of pulp,
    • the water drains through the cover leaving the pulp on the surface
  13. Fourdrinier
    • name applied to the papermachine after the Fourdrinier brothers who
    • financed its early development. It produces a continuous web
    • of paper and was developed by Bryan Donkin from the original invention of
    • Nicholas-Louis Robert.
  14. Grain
    • alignment of fibres
    • in a sheet of paper caused by the flow of the web
    • of wet paper in cylinder
    • or Fourdrinier
    • machines.
  15. Half Stuff
    • partially broken or beaten fibres
    • for papermaking. See also Stuff
  16. Lignin
    • unwanted part of woody plants, can cause
    • degradation later in the life of the paper.
  17. Mould
    • rectangular wooden frame covered with either a laid or wove
    • wire surface used for forming
    • sheets of paper by hand.
  18. Newsprint
    • name for paper used for printing newspapers, the
    • cheapest type made
  19. Post
    • term applied to a pile of sheets, normally 144 but varying
    • in number, of wet pulp, fresh from the mould,
    • just made into paper couched
    • with alternate felts
    • and ready for pressing.
  20. Pulp
    • the aqueous stuff
    • containing disintegrated cellulose
    • fibre
    • from which paper is made.
  21. Rags
    • formerly the principal raw material for making
    • paper, now rarely used except for very high quality papers. Could be linen
    • or cotton
    • but by association also includes jute,
    • sailcloth and hemp
    • ropes.
  22. Shake
    • sideways movement of a hand mould
    • by the vatman
    • or the wire
    • of a papermachine to interlock the fibres
    • whilst still suspended in the pulp
  23. Size
    • originally a solution of glue or gelatine
    • but later any substance that reduces the rate at which paper absorbs water or
    • ink. Can be applied by coating the finished sheet
    • or by addition to the pulp
    • before forming.
    • See also tub-sized
    • and engine-sized
  24. Sizing
    process of treating the paper with size.
  25. Vat
    • originally the tank containing the stuff
    • from which hand made paper was produced but later also applied to the tank in
    • which the cylinder of a mould
    • machine is partially immersed.