chlorofluorcarbons (CFCs) : 15- 35% - from refrigerants ( close to the atmospheric window).
nitrous oxide (N2O): 5% - from fertilizers and fossil duel combustion.
What is the atmospheric window and what is its significance in global warming?
wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum that can betransmitted through the earth's atmosphere. Atmosphericwindows occur in the visible, infrared, and radio regions of the spectrum (CFCs close window).
What is El Nino?
An abnormal warming of surface ocean waters in the eastern tropical Pacific caused by surface pressure changes
What are some of the effects of an El Nino?
Water becomes much warmer and global weather patterns shift.
How long does El Nino occur?
About every 2-7 years for 6 months to 2 years.
What are some of the potential effects of global climate change?
shifts in temperature & precipitation patterns
more severe hurricanes
melting of ice land
shifts in ranges of wilife agriculture
life on earth
What is being done to address global warming?
reduce the GHG emissions, plant forests, and stop deforestation
What was the goal of the Kyoto Protocol?
international agreement ro reduce GHG
What is happening in Durban, South Africa right now?
A conference about the GHG and Global warming that’s going on now
What is Albedo?
A measure of how much light is reflected from a surface
What are CFCs?
anthropagenic GHGs that close the atmospheric window
What is the Coriolis effect?
Due to Earth’s rotation, deflect right in N hemisphere and left in S hemisphere
what is Ice-albedo feedback?
build up of ice reflects solar radiation and leads to more ice buildup, change is amplified
What does insolation mean?
incomming solar radiation
What is the Mauna Loa Observatory and what reaserch is done there?
volcano in Hawaii, site of CO2 measurements showing seasonal change in concentration and increase in concentration.
What created the Ocean conveyer belt?
differences in temperature and density cause sinking and upwelling of ocean water, current redistribute heat energy
What secondary pollutaints can Sulfur dioxide cause?
It can cause acid and smog rain due to the sulfur content.
What is the biggest layer of Earth's atmosphere?
What happens to the temperature from the troposphere to the stratosphere?
The temperature decreases in altitude because the troposphere is closer to the ground which is where the heat source is.
What type of radiation is absorbed by GHGs?
What are Alveoli and what does it do?
They are sacs in the respitory system that create surface area for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide
What is Synergy?
Two or more things that work together and multiply
What is a catalytic converter?
A device that cleans up carbon minoxide
What is the breakdown of the gasses in Earth's atmosphere?
0.03% Carbon Dioxide
What was the composition of Earth's early atmosphere?
80% water vapor.
10% carbon dioxide.
5 to 7% hydrogen-sulfur(don't have to know).
What is it called when oxygen is carried from the alveoli to the blood stream?
What is the function of the respitory system?
To exchange oxygen into the blood while emitting carbon dioxide out of the body.
What does the Epiglottis do?
Slab of skin that closes your tranchea when eating
What is sick building syndrome?
A condition associated with the environment that seems to be unhealthy.
What are the 5 most common indoor air pollutants followed by human health effects and ways to control them?
Asbestos- used as fire retardent insulation; lung cancer; banned from US.
Carbon monoxide- incomplete burning of fossil fuels; combines with hemoglobin and affects respitory system; electric appliances.
Formaldehyde- Furniture and drapes; irritation of eyes,nose,throat, lung cancer; ventilation.
Radon- uranium decay from rocks and soil; lung cancer; ventilation.
Tobacco Smoke- cigaretts, pipes; asthema,lung cancer; outlaw in public places.
What does HVAC mean?
Heating Ventilation Air Conditioning
When did air pollution become an environmental issue?...Examples?
In the 1960's and the 1970's. Oil spills and air pollution.
What are point, fugitive, area, and mobile sources?
Identifiable local places that cause pollution, Gasses due to leaks, emit radiation, automobiles.
What is the difference between primary and secondary pollution?
Primary- directly into the environment(nitrogen and sulfur oxides)
Secondary- indirect and caused by primary(acid rain or smog)
What are air toxics?
unknown pollutants whuich may affect humans
What does the NAAQS do?
Monitors the air quality in the US and makes rules based on ways to take care of the atmosphere.
Name the 6 outdoor air pollutants followed by human health effects and ways to control them?
Carbon monoxide- incomplete burning of fossil fuels; combines with hemoglobin reducing oxygen in lungs; catalytic converters.
Lead- from leaded gasoline; damge to brain and learning system; outlawed in US.
Nitrogen Oxide- Burning fossil fuels at high temperatures; irritates eyes, nose, infection; catalytic converters.