histo buzz words

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histo buzz words
2012-01-12 14:43:42

MS1/Mod 5: histo buzz words
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  1. adenohyophysis
    ant lobe, pars distalis, pars tuberalis
  2. ratheke's
    oral ectoderm, ant pit
  3. hypophyseal portal system
    ant pit
  4. somatrotrophs, lactotrophs
    acidophils in ant pit, GH and PRL
  5. thyrotrophs, gonadotrophs, corticotrophs
    basophils in ant pit, TSH, LH, FSH (all PAS pos), corticotrophs (ACTH, LPH, B endorphin, MSH, all PAS neg)
  6. chromophobes
    ant pit, poor staining cyt
  7. leptin
    in fat cells, dec hunger, infl hypot
  8. ghrelin
    in stomach/panc, inc hunger, infl hypot
  9. Cushings
    inc ACTH (inc cortisol, metab prob)
  10. agromegally
    inc GH in adults
  11. gigantism
    inc GH in kids
  12. hyperprolactemia
    inc PRL
  13. Sheehans
    pit infarct/necrosis, hyposec
  14. int lob pit
    • pars intermedia
    • basophils and colloid follicles
  15. neurohypophysis
    • aka post lobe, pars nervosa
    • neuroectoderm
  16. inf hypophyseal arteries
    post lobe
  17. cavernous sinus
    post lobe venous drainage
  18. paraventricular n and supraoptic n
    location of cell bodies of axon terminals in post pit
  19. pituicytes
    glial support cells in post pit, fen cap
  20. nephrogenic DI
    no response to ADH, polydipsia/polyuria
  21. hypo DI
    dec ADH but high serum osm, polydipsia/uria
  22. synthetic ADH
    desmopressin, ddAVP
  23. SIADH
    inc ADH sec but dec serum osm
  24. glomerulosa
    mineralocorticoids, aldosterone
  25. fasciculata
    • spongiocytes
    • glucocorticoids, cortisol
  26. reticularis
  27. chromaffin cells
    • aka pheochromocytes, in adrenal medulla
    • catecholamine sec, symp ganglia, innervated by Ach
  28. Catecholamine synth
  29. Addison's
    hypocortisolism, hypoaldosteronism
  30. Conn's
    hyperaldosteronism, hypertension
  31. pheochromocytoma
    catecholamine sec, chromaffin cell tumor
  32. pineal gland
    • epithalamus of CNS/roof 3rd ventricle, NE origin
    • inc act at night, dec in day
  33. glia + pinealocytes
    pineal gland
  34. SCG
    • innervation pineal gland
    • symp (adrenergic, noradrenergic)
  35. melatonin
    • made by pinealocytes
    • antigonadotrophic
  36. calcification
    in pineal gland, age related (related to sec act, not path)
  37. thyroid gland
    endodermal, thyroglossal duct
  38. iodine and propylthiouracil/methimazole
    affect thyroid dev
  39. C cells
    • parafollicular, NC origin
    • sec calcitonin
  40. prealbumin, TBG, albumin
    bind circ T3/T4
  41. deiodination T4=
    active T3 and inactive rT3
  42. goiter
    enlgmt thyroid, no indication of act level
  43. primary hypothyroidism
    thyroid failure
  44. secondary hypothyroidism
    ant pit TSH def
  45. tertiary hypothyroidism
    hypot TRH def
  46. parathyroids
    • 3rd/4th pouches
    • chief cells
    • oxyphils
  47. chief cells
    make PTH
  48. oxyphils
    inc w/ age after puberty
  49. hypocalcemia
    stim PTH and Vit D3
  50. hypercalcemia
    • dec PTH, Vit D3
    • inc calcitonin
  51. PTH
    inc circ Ca
  52. loss parathyroid
    dec circ Ca, mm spasms/tetany...death bc airway obstruction
  53. etidonate, alendronate, oral biphosphonates
    • inhib bone reabsorption
    • rx for hypercalcemia
  54. calcimar, miacalcin
    • synthetic calcitonin
    • rx for hypercalcemia
  55. primary spermatocytes
    meiosis 1
  56. secondary spermatocytes
    meiosis 2, maturation
  57. spermatogonia
    stem cells
  58. spermatids
    post-meitic, spermiogenesis
  59. spermatozoa
    male gamete
  60. blood-testes barrier
    sertoli cells
  61. MIF
    • sertoli cells
    • inhib mullerian ducts
  62. inhibin, ABP, MIF, aromatization
    sertoli cells
  63. leydig
    • aka interstitial
    • androgens
    • eos cytoplasm
  64. reinke crystals
    • cytoplasmic, leydig
    • inc w/ age
  65. excretory duct lining
    sertoli then cuboidal of rete testes
  66. mediastinum
    rete testes
  67. eff ductules
    • ciliated and non ciliated
    • circ sm mm
  68. proximal epididymis
    tall PSSC w/ stereocilia
  69. distal epididymis
    short PSSC w/ stereocilia
  70. decapacitation
  71. w/in prostate gland
    ejaculatory duct
  72. prostatic urethra
    w/in prostate, trans epi
  73. mem urethra
  74. penile urethra
    w/in spongiosum, PSSC to SSE
  75. erectile tissue
    trabeculae enclose sinusoids; supplied by helicine arterioles
  76. fructose, fibrinogen, ascorbic acid (vit C)
    seminal vesicle sec
  77. BPH
    central prostate; hard to pee
  78. prostatic adenocarcinoma
    periphal prostate
  79. alkaline, acid phosphatase, PSA
    prostate gland sec
  80. DHT
    stim PSA sec (liquifies semen clot)
  81. Skene's
    female, makes PSA
  82. bulbourethral
    • aka cowper's
    • proximal penile urethra
  83. lube mucous into penile urethra
    glands littre
  84. mesovarium
    • post part of infundibulopelvic/suspensory lig of ovary
    • has hilus for n/v
  85. leydig-like
    hilar cells of ovary
  86. primary oocyte
    • prophase 1
    • birth until puberty
  87. ovulation
    secondary oocyte to reprod tract
  88. fertilization
    secondary oocyte completes meiosis
  89. estrous
    no uterine shedding
  90. days 1-5
  91. days 6-14
    follicular aka estrogenic aka prolif
  92. days 15-27
    luteal aka progestagenic aka secretory
  93. days 28 onward
    • ischemic
    • overlaps next menstrual
  94. thecal cells
    stromal cells env follicle (primary follicle)
  95. zona pellucida
    multilaminar primary follicle
  96. granulosa
    • more than 1 follicular cells
    • sec estrogens
  97. gonadotropin indep
    • initial follicular dev
    • random
  98. theca interna
    follicles, sec androgens
  99. gap junctions
    for commun btw follicles when dec FSH rec
  100. dominant follicle
    lots FSH rec (for when estrogen and inhibin inhibit FSH levels)
  101. Call-exner
    follicular clusters of granulosa in wall
  102. stroma dominant follicle
    theca interna + theca externa
  103. LH spike
    • lutenize theca interna/granulosa
    • stim meiosis (for ovulation as secondary oocyte)
    • corpus luteum forms (prog)
  104. graafian follicle
    mature, oocyte done growing, secondary
  105. stigma on ovary surface
    site of ovulation
  106. apoptosis granulosa
    • follicular atresia
    • at any stage; accel after birth, puberty, pregnancy
  107. glassy mem
    shared BM of theca interna and granulosa thickens in follicular atresia
  108. fertilization site
  109. mesosalpinx
    aka broad lig of ovary
  110. site of ovulation
  111. endometrium
    glycogen rich
  112. spiral arterioles
    lamina functionalis of endometrium
  113. basal arterioles
    lamina basalis of endometrium and myometrium
  114. nabothian cysts
    glandular dilation when cervical glands blocked
  115. cervical transformation zone
    • aka squamocolumnar junction
    • at external os
  116. E2
    thin watery mucous in cervix, alkaline
  117. cornification
    stim by E2 at vag epi
  118. peg cells
    uterine tubes
  119. spasmatic arterioles
    leads to ischemia and necrosis fo tissue when no fert/implantation
  120. cervical barrier
    thick mucous bc P4
  121. trophoblasts
    make HCG, implantation
  122. homol to scrotum
    labia majora
  123. homol to penis, cavernosa, and glans clit
  124. gtr vestibular
    aka bartholins, in vaginal vestibule
  125. homol to bulbourethral
  126. homol to prostate
    periurethral aka Skene's (acid phosphatase, PSA)
  127. SERMS (raloxifene)
    rec modulator for osteoporosis rx (menopause)
  128. dec bone density
    glucocorticoid therapy (menopause)
  129. acrosome rxn
    req zona pellucida ZP3 rec
  130. cortical rxn
    cortical granule exocytosis
  131. arias-stella
    cytoplasmic vacuoles in glands of endometrial decidualization
  132. heuser's mem
    delamination and flattened cells on abembryonic cytotrophoblast
  133. chorion
    somatic mesod + trophoblast
  134. pre-eclampsia
    • dysfunctional fusion of syncytiotrophoblast w/ uterine blood vessels
    • inc BP, proeinuria, edema, premi
  135. basal plate
    trophoblast + deciduous basalis, early 2nd month
  136. cotyledons
    dome-like tents in basal plate
  137. chorion frondosum
    placenta on fetus, lots villi
  138. chorion laeva
    sm chorion, abembryonic
  139. chorioamnion
    the fetal mem that ruptures in labor and releases amniotic fluid ("water")
  140. placenta
    chorion frondosum + decidua basalis
  141. molar pregnancy
    high HCG 2/3 trimester, trophoblastic disease, no fetus
  142. E2
    maintains corpus luteum in 1st and placenta in 2/3
  143. E3
    maintains placenta, chol>pregnenolone...estriol
  144. Wharton's jelly
    mesenchyme around fetal vessels, covered by amnion
  145. menstrual age
    40 wks after last period
  146. gestational age
    42 weeks
  147. Braxton-Hicks
    contractions, irreg, painless, 2 trimester