Psych *8B

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Psych *8B
2012-01-13 12:38:35

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  1. Adaptation-level phenomenon
    is the tendency people have to quickly adapt to a new situation, until that situation becomes the norm. Once the new situation is normal, another new experience is needed -- it constantly raises the level for what is new or exciting as each new thing becomes the norm.
  2. Cannon-Bard Theory
    this theory of emotion states that an emotion is produced when some stimulus triggers the thalamus to send information simultaneously to the brain (specifically, the cerebral cortex) and the autonomic system (including the skeletal muscles). Thus, the stimulus is perceived at both a physiological and the subjective level.
  3. Catharsis
    is a psychodynamic principle that, in its most basic sense, is simply an emotional release. Further, the hypothesis maintains that aggressive or sexual urges are relieved by "releasing" aggressive or sexual energy, usually through action or fantasy. For example, a young male may watch a film in which an attractive woman engages in sexual behavior. The young male may become sexually aroused from this and subsequently frustrated because of his inability to act out his sexual desires. To release this sexual tension,the young male may go outside and play sports or engage in fantasies about himself and the woman.
  4. Cognitive appraisal theory
    A theory of emotion which implicates people’s personal interpetations of an event in determining their emotional reaction. The most important part of this theory is the way we interpret the event (aka, was the event a positive or a negative occurence?) as well as what we think caused the situation.
  5. Cognitive theory
    a learning theory of psychology that attempts to explain human behavior by understanding the thought processes. The assumption is that humans are logical beings that make the choices that make the most sense to them.
  6. Emotion
    it is a response by a whole organism, involving (1) physical arousal, (2) expressive behaviors, and (3) conscious experience.
  7. Emotional intelligence
    refers to the ability to perceive, control and evaluate emotions.
  8. Feel-good, do-good
    When do you help other people? According to this theory, you are more likely to help other people when you are already in a good mood. So, if you just got an "A" on the big exam and a friend just gave you a great gift, you are more likely to help someone else that you might not if you weren't in such a good mood.
  9. James-Lange Theory
    suggests emotions are a consequence of our physiological responses to external stimuli followed by identification of the emotion by examining the physical responses. So, some external stimulus produces a physiological response in your body. Then, you examine this physiological response and identify the emotion you are experiencing based on the physiological response. For example, you see a bear in the woods, and you begin to tremble. You then identify the fact that you are trembling and conclude that you are afraid..."I am trembling, therefore I am afraid."
  10. Laterization of emotion
    is the asymmetrical representation of emotional control and processing in the brain.
  11. Opponent process theory
    A theory suggested by Solomon where emotional reactions to a stimulus are followed by opposite emotional reactions. This theory may explain why stunt people enjoy their work. First the individual will feel intense anxiety before performing a stunt and then the person will receive an opposite reaction of relief after the stunt is completed. The theory also postulates that repeated exposure to the stimulus will cause less of an initial reaction and a stronger opposing reaction. This may explain why drugs, such as opiates, give diminishing returns after prolonged use yet the effects of withdraw become more intensified and unpleasant.
  12. Paul Ekman
    a psychologist who has been a pioneer in the study of emotions and their relation to facial expressions. He has been considered one of the 100 most eminent psychologists of the twentieth century
  13. Relative deprivation
    is when you have the perception that you are worse off than these other people you compare yourself to. Having this feeling typically leads to frustration. For example, let's say you have a group of friends you study with (and you tend to compare yourself to them) and on a couple of exams they all do well and you do poorly, even though you all studied the same amount at the same times, etc. You may feel that you are worse off than them because they are doing better than you.
  14. Robert Plutchik
    His psychoevolutionary theory of emotion is one of the most influential classification approaches for general emotional responses. He considered there to be eight primary emotions- anger, fear, sadness, disgust, surprise, anticipation, trust, and joy. He proposed that these 'basic' emotions are biologically primitive and have evolved in order to increase the reproductive fitness of the animal. He argues for the primacy of these emotions by showing each to be the trigger of behaviour with high survival value, such as the way fear inspires the fight-or-flight response.
  15. Two-factor Theory
    states that emotion is a function of both cognitive factors and physiological arousal. According to the theory, "people search the immediate environment for emotionally relevant cues to label and interpret unexplained physiological arousal."
  16. Well-being
    a good or satisfactory condition of existence; a state characterized by health, happiness, and prosperity;