Chapter 1

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Anonymous
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127401
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Chapter 1
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2012-01-12 20:24:48
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Scientific Method terms chapter
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from worksheet 1 and 2
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  1. Constant
    potentially varying parameter that is kept constant.
  2. Controlled variable
    potentially varying parameter that is kept constant
  3. Dependent variable
    • the parameter that is measured
    • Can differ between the experimental and control groups as a result of differences in the independent variable
  4. Independent variable
    variable intentially allowed to varry
  5. Data
    Recorded observations quantitative or qualitative
  6. Inductive reasoning
    Small observations to large generalizations
  7. deductive reasoning
    General premises to hypothesis
  8. Scientific method
    • Hypothesis based science
    • Orderly steps
    • Idealized process
  9. Hypothesis
    Tentative answer to a well framed question
  10. Falsifiable
    There must be some observation or experiment that could reveal that the idea is not true
  11. All life
    • Composed of cells
    • Require energy
    • Reproduce
    • DNA
    • Evolve
  12. Hierarchies of Biology
    • Biosphere
    • Communities
    • population
    • organism
    • organ system
    • organ
    • tissure
    • cell
    • organelle
    • molecule
  13. What is science
    based on the assumption that all events have natural causes
  14. Viruses have:
    • no nucleus or organelles (not cellular)
    • 0 energy use unless infecting
    • 1/2 DNA and 1/2 have RNA
  15. Evolution answers the unity and diversity of life
    • Look the same due to common ancestor
    • Look diferent due to natural selection
  16. Taxonomy
    Naming and classifying species
  17. Organism grouped together due to:
    • Similarities:
    • Morphological
    • Physiological/ biochemical
    • Genetic
  18. 3 Domains of life:
    • Bacteria
    • Archaea
    • Eukarya
  19. Bacteria and Archaea
    • Prokaryotic (lack a nucleus)
    • Most unicellular and microscopic
    • 2 very distinct brances of prokaryotes
  20. Eukarya
    • Possessing a nucleus
    • Protista
    • Fungi
    • Anamalia
    • Plantae
  21. Monophyletic groups
    • Kingdoms anamalia, plantae, and fungi
    • each kingdom has an ancestral species and all descendents
  22. Modes of nutrition
    • Partly distinguishes anamalia, plantae and fungi
    • photosynthesis
    • decomposers
    • Ingestion
  23. Excusion
    • Kingdom protista defined by
    • These are eukaryotes that are not animals, plants or fungi
    • should be split into multiple kingdoms
    • most unicellular
  24. List classifications
    • Kingdom
    • phylum
    • class
    • order
    • family
    • genus
    • species
  25. Two main sciences
    • Discover (describe)
    • hypothesis (explain)
  26. Fact
    • does not mean absolute certainty
    • provisional acceptance
  27. Theory
    • not scientific
    • hunch
    • idea
    • scientific
    • general set of principle
    • strongly supported by evidence
    • explains some aspect of nature
  28. Theory of gravity is both fact and theory
    • gravity is a fact
    • vast body of evidence
    • the mechanism of gravity is a theory
    • newton explained rather well how gravity occurs
    • einstein and others refined it
  29. Theory of evolution is both fact and theory
    • occurrance is Fact:
    • vast body of evidence
    • no competing scientific explanation for unity/diversity of life
    • mechanism is theory:
    • Darwin described natural selection
    • other biologists refined

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