A&P 1

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Anonymous
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127406
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A&P 1
Updated:
2012-01-12 11:31:05
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ANATOMY PHYSIOLOGY
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BODY PLAN & ORGANIZATION
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  1. define ANATOMY
    STUDY OF THE STRUCTURE OF THE HUMAN BODY
  2. define PHYSIOLOGY
    STUDY OF THE FUNCTION OF THE HUMAN BODY
  3. tell how ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY are related an give an example showing their relationship
    STRUCTURE defines FUNCTION and vice versa, they complement eachother, STRUCTURE designs the specific function and function influences the size, shape, action, and reaction of the structure

    • EX:
    • the liver, the structure is the liver and it has the function of filtering blood and creating bile, they are inter-related and cannot be separated
  4. what are the 10 SUBDIVISIONS OF ANATOMY?
    • EMBRYOLOGY- study of fetal dev., first 8 weeks of dev.
    • DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY- ALL stages of dev.
    • CELL BIOLOGY- cell structure and function
    • HISTOLOGY- microscopic structure of tissues
    • SURFACE ANATOMY- surface markings of the body
    • GROSS ANATOMY- structures viewed without a microscope
    • SYSTEMIC ANATOMY- structure of specific systems
    • REGIONAL ANATOMY- specific regions of the body
    • RADIOGRAPHIC ANATOMY- body stuctures visualized with x-ra, CT, or MRI
    • PATHOLOGICAL ANATOMY- structural changes with diseases
  5. what are the 8 SUBDIVISIONS OF PHYSIOLOGY?
    • NEUROPHYSIOLOGY- functional properties of nerve cells
    • ENDOCRINOLOGY- hormones and how they control body functions
    • CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY- function of the heart and blood vessels
    • IMMUNOLOGY- how the body defends itself against disease-causing agents
    • RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY-functions of the air passageways and lungs
    • RENAL PHYSIOLOGY- functions of the kidneys
    • EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY- changes in cell and organ functions as a result of muscular activity
    • PATHOPHYSIOLOGY- functional changes associated with disease and aging
  6. What are the LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION from smallest to largest & give an example of each
    • *CHEMICAL (EX: atomic- HYDROGEN/ OXYGEN & molecular- CARBS/ LIPIDS)
    • *CELLULAR- all cells (EX: plasma membrane, cytoplasm, & nucleus)
    • *TISSUE- cells gathered together in groups (EX: NERVOUS TISSUE)
    • *ORGAN-collection of tissues, which then performs functions needed for the human body (EX: KIDNEY/ LIVER)
    • *SYSTEM- group of organs which carry out a more complete set of functions (EX: URINARY/ ENDOCRINE)
    • *ORGANISM- forms from the 11 body systems working together (EX: THE HUMAN BODY)
  7. NAME THE 11 SYSTEMS OF THE BODY
    • INTEGUMENTARY (SKIN)
    • SKELETAL (BONES/ JOINTS)
    • MUSCULAR (MUSCLES)
    • NERVOUS (BRAIN, SPINAL CORD, NERVES...)
    • ENDOCRINE (HORMONE PRODUCING GLANDS)
    • CARDIOVASCULAR (BLOOD, HEART, & BLOOD VESSELS)
    • LYMPHATIC & IMMUNE (LYMPHATIC FLUID/ VESSELS)
    • RESPIRATORY (LUNGS/ AIR PASSAGEWAYS)
    • DIGESTIVE (ORGANS OF GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT)
    • URINARY (KIDNEYS, URETERS, URINARY BLADDER, AND URETHRA)
    • REPRODUCTIVE (GONADS/ ASSOCIATED ORGANS)
  8. functions of the INTEGUMENTARY:
    PROTECTS BODY, REGULATES BOD TEMP, ELIMINATES SOME WASTES, HELPS MAKE VIT D, & DETECTS SENSATIONS (TOUCH, PAIN, WARMTH, & COLD)
  9. functions of the SKELETAL:
    SUPPORTS/ PROTECTS BOD, PROVIDES SURFACE AREA FOR MUSCLE ATTACHMENTS, AIDS BOD MOVEMENTS, HOUSES CELLS THAT PRODUCE BLOOD CELLS, STORES MINERALS AND LIPIDS
  10. functions of the MUSCULAR:
    PRODUCES BOD MOVEMENTS (WALKING), STABILIZES BODY POSITION (POSTURE), & GENERATES HEAT
  11. functions of the NERVOUS:
    GENERATES ACTION POTENTIALS (NERVE IMPULSES) TO REGULATE BOD ACTIVITIES, DETECTS CHANGES IN BOD'S INTERNAL/ EXTERNAL ENVIRO., INTERPRETS THE CHANGES, & RESPONDS BY CAUSING MUSCULAR CONTRACTIONS OR GLANDULAR SECRETIONS
  12. functions of the ENDOCRINE:
    REGULATES BODY ACTIVITIES (RELEASING HORMONES-CHEMICAL MESSENGERS)
  13. functions of the CARDIOVASCULAR:
    HEART PUMPS BLOOD THROUGH BLOOD VESSELS, BLOOD CARRIES OXYGEN & NUTRIENTS TO CELLS & CARBON DIOXIDE & WASTES AWAY FROM CELLS & HELPS REGULATE ACID-BASE BALANCE, TEMP, & WATER CONTENT OF BOD FLUIDS, BLOOD COMPONENTS HELP DEFEND AGAINST DISEASE & REPAIR DAMAGED BLOOD VESSELS
  14. functions of the LYMPHATIC & IMMUNE:
    RETURNS PROTEINS & FLUID TO BLOOD, CARRIES LIPIDS FROM GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT TO BLOOD
  15. functions of the RESPIRATORY:
    TRANSFERS OXYGEN FROM INHALED AIR TO BLOOD & CARBON DIOXIDE FROM BLOOD TO EXHALD AIR, HELPS REGULATE ACID-BASE BALANCE OF BODY FLUIDS, AIR FLOWING OUT OF LUNGS THROUGH VOCAL CORDS PRODUCES SOUNDS
  16. functions of the DIGESTIVE:
    ACHIEVES PHYSICAL & CHEMICAL BREAKDOWN OF FOOD, ABSORBS NUTRIENTS, ELIMINATES SOLID WASTES
  17. functions of the URINARY:
    PRODUCES, STORES, & ELIMINATES URINE, ELIMINATES WASTES AND REGULATES VOLUME AND CHEMICAL COMPOSTION OF BLOOD, HELPS MAINTAIN THE ACID-BASE BALANCE OF BOD FLUIDS, MAINTAINS BOD'S MINERAL BALANCE, HELPS REG PRODUCTION OF RED BLOOD CELLS
  18. functions of the REPRODUCTIVE:
    • GONADS PRODUCE GAMETES (SPERM OR OOCYTES) THAT UNITE TO FORM A NEW ORGANISM, GONADS ALSO RELEASE HORMONES THAT REGULATE REPRODUCTION AND OTHER BODY PROCESSES, ASSOCIATED ORGANS TRANSPORT AND STORE GAMETES
    • *you CAN live without the reproductive system
  19. describe the HUMAN ANATOMICAL POSITION
    subject stands facing the observer (anteriorly), eyes facing forward, feet flat on the floor facing forward, arms at sides with palms facing forward (EVERYTHING FACES FORWARD!)
  20. Anatomical name for: HEAD
    CEPHALIC
  21. Anatomical name for: SKULL
    CRANIAL
  22. Anatomical name for: FACE
    FACIAL
  23. Anatomical name for: NECK
    CERVICAL
  24. Anatomical name for: SPINAL COLUMN
    VERTEBRAL
  25. Anatomical name for: CHEST
    THORACIC
  26. Anatomical name for: SHOULDER BLADE
    SCAPULAR
  27. Anatomical name for: BACK
    DORSAL
  28. Anatomical name for: ABDOMEN
    ABDOMINAL
  29. Anatomical name for: LOIN
    LUMBAR
  30. Anatomical name for: PELVIS
    PELVIC
  31. Anatomical name for: BUTTOCK
    GLUTEAL
  32. Anatomical name for: ARM
    BRACHIAL
  33. Anatomical name for: FOREARM
    ANTEBRACHIAL
  34. Anatomical name for: WRIST
    CARPAL
  35. Anatomical name for: PALM
    PALMAR, VOLAR
  36. Anatomical name for: THIGH
    FEMORAL
  37. Anatomical name for: LEG
    CRURAL
  38. Anatomical name for: CALF
    SURAL
  39. Anatomical name for: FOOT
    PEDAL
  40. Anatomical name for: ANKLE
    TARSAL
  41. Anatomical name for: HEEL
    CALCANEAL
  42. Anatomical name for: TOES
    DIGITAL, PHALANGEAL
  43. directional term: SUPERIOR
    TOWARD THE HEAD, TOP, OR ABOVE
  44. directional term: INFERIOR
    AWAY FROM HEAD, BOTTOM, OR BELOW
  45. directional term: MEDIAL
    TOWARD THE MIDLINE
  46. directional term: LATERAL
    AWAY FROM THE MIDLINE
  47. directional term: PROXIMAL
    CLOSER TO POINT OF ORIGIN OR ATTACHMENT
  48. directional term: DISTAL
    FURTHER AWAY FROM THE POINT OF ORIGIN OR ATTACHMENT
  49. directional term: ANTERIOR (VENTRAL)
    TOWARD THE FRONT
  50. directional term: POSTERIOR (DORSAL)
    TOWARD THE BACK
  51. directional term: IPSILATERAL
    SAMES SIDE OF MIDLINE
  52. directional term: CONTRALATERAL
    OPPOSITE SIDE OF MIDLINE
  53. directional term: SUPERFICIAL
    TOWARD THE SURFACE
  54. directional term: DEEP
    TOWARDS THE CORE
  55. directional term: PARIETAL
    SURFACE CLOSEST TO CAVITY WALL
  56. directional term: VISCERAL
    SURFACES CLOSEST TO ORGAN INSIDE THE CAVITY
  57. WHAT ARE THE 3 CARDINAL PLANES AND DESCRIBE EACH?
    • SAGITTAL (MEDIAL/ LATERAL)- VERTICAL PLANE, MIDSAGITTAL (2 EQUAL HALVES) & PARASAGITTAL
    • TRANSVERSE (SUPERIOR/ INFERIOR)- HORIZONTAL PLANE
    • FRONTAL OR CORONAL (ANTERIOR/ POSTERIOR)- VERTICAL PLANE
  58. NAME THE 2 CAVITIES AND THE CAVITIES WITHIN THEM
    • DORSAL CAVITY
    • CRANIAL & VERTEBRAL CAVITIES
    • VENTRAL CAVITY
    • THORACIC CAVITY
    • PLEURAL, PERICARDIAL CAVITIES AND MEDIASTINUM
    • ABDOMINOPELVIC CAVITY
    • ABDOMINAL & PELVIC CAVITIES
  59. EXPLAIN CRANIAL CAVITY (WITHIN THE DORSAL CAVITY)
    FORMED BY CRANIAL BONES AND CONTAINS BRAIN
  60. EXPLAIN VERTEBRAL CAVITY (WITHIN THE DORSAL CAVITY)
    FORMED BY VERTEBRAL COLUMN AND CONTAINS SPINAL CORD AND THE BEGINNINGS OF SPINAL NERVES
  61. EXPLAIN THORACIC CAVITY (WITHIN THE VENTRAL CAVITY)
    CHEST CAVITY, SUPERIOR PORTION OF VENTRAL BODAY CAVITY, CONTAINS PLEURAL AND PERICARDIAL CAVITIES AND MEDIASTINUM
  62. EXPLAIN PLEURAL CAVITY (WITHIN THE VENTRAL/ THORACIC CAVITY)
    EACH SURROUNDS A LUNG; THE SEROUS MEMBRANE OF THE PLEURAL CAVITIES IS THE PLEURA
  63. EXPLAIN PERICARDIAL CAVITY (WITHIN THE VENTRAL/ THORACIC CAVITY)
    SURROUNDS THE HEART; THE SEROUS MEMBRANE OF THE PERICARDIAL CAVITY IS THE PERICARDIUM
  64. EXPLAIN MEDIASTINUM (WITHIN THE VENTRAL/ THORACIC CAVITY)
    CENTRAL PORTION OF THORACIC CAVITY BETWEEN THE LUNGS; EXTENDS FROM STERNUM TO VERTEBRAL COLUMN AND FROM NECK TO DIAPHRAGM; CONTAINS HEART, THYMUS, ESOPHAGUS, TRACHEA, AND SEVERAL LARGE BLOOD VESSELS
  65. EXPLAIN ABDOMINOPELVIC CAVITY (WITHIN THE VENTRAL CAVITY)
    INFERIOR PORTION OF VENTRAL BODY CAVITY; SUBDIVIDED INTO ABDOMINAL AND PELVIC CAVITIES
  66. EXPLAIN ABDOMINAL CAVITY (WITHIN THE VENTRAL/ ABDOMINOPELVIC CAVITY)
    CONTAINS STOMACH, SPLEEN, LIVER, GALLBLADDER, SMALL INTESTINE, AND MOST OF LARGE INTESTINE; THE SEROUS MEMBRANE OF THE ABDOMINAL CAVITY IS THE PERITONEUM
  67. EXPLAIN PELVIC CAVITY (WITHIN THE VENTRAL/ ABDOMINOPELVICE CAVITY)
    CONTAINS URINARY BLADDER, PORTIONS OF LARGE INTESTINE, AND INTERNAL ORGANS OF REPRODUCTION
  68. THE DIAPHRAGM SEPERATES WHAT? AND WHAT IS IT'S FUNCITON?
    IT SEPARATES THE THORACIC CAVITY AND THE ABDOMINOPELVIC CAVITY

    IT HELPS US TO BREATHE
  69. BRAIN (MAJOR ORGAN OF THE BODY) WHAT CAVITY DOES IT BELONG IN?
    DORSAL/ CRANIAL CAVITY
  70. SPINAL CORD (MAJOR ORGAN OF THE BODY) WHAT CAVITY DOES IT BELONG IN?
    DORSAL/ VERTEBRAL CAVITY
  71. THYROID GLAND (MAJOR ORGAN OF THE BODY) WHAT CAVITY DOES IT BELONG IN?
    NO CAVITY, ITS IN THE NECK
  72. LUNGS (MAJOR ORGAN OF THE BODY) WHAT CAVITY DOES IT BELONG IN?
    VENTRAL/ THORACIC/ PLEURAL CAVITY
  73. THYMUS, ESOPHAGUS, TRACHEA, SUPERIOR VENA CAVA, INFERIOR VENA CAVA, AORTA (MAJOR ORGANS OF THE BODY) WHAT CAVITY DOES IT BELONG IN?
    VENTRAL/ THORACIC/ MEDIASTINUM
  74. HEART (MAJOR ORGAN OF THE BODY) WHAT CAVITY DOES IT BELONG IN?
    VENTRAL/ THORACIC/ PERICARDIAL CAVITY
  75. DIAPHRAGM (MAJOR ORGAN OF THE BODY) WHAT CAVITY DOES IT BELONG IN?
    NO CAVITY, IT DIVIDES THE THORACIC AND ABDOMINOPELVIC CAVITIES
  76. STOMACH, SPLEEN, LIVER, AND SMALL INTESTINE, MOST OF THE LARGE INTESTINE (GREATER OMENTUM) (MAJOR ORGANS OF THE BODY) WHAT CAVITY DOES IT BELONG IN?
    VENTRAL/ ABDOMINOPELVIC/ ABDOMINAL CAVITY
  77. PORTION OF THE LARGE INTESTINE, URINARY BLADDER, OVARIES, UTERINE TUBES, UTERUS, URETHRA (MAJOR ORGANS OF THE BODY) WHAT CAVITY DOES IT BELONG IN?
    VENTRAL/ ABDOMINOPELVIC/ PELVIC CAVITY
  78. TESTES (MAJOR ORGAN OF THE BODY) WHAT CAVITY DOES IT BELONG IN?
    OUTSIDE THE ABDOMINOPELVIC CAVITY
  79. KIDNEYS, URETERS (MAJOR ORGAN OF THE BODY) WHAT CAVITY DOES IT BELONG IN?
    VENTRAL/ ABDOMINOPELVIC/ RETROPERITONEAL CAVITY

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