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What is the functional unit of the kidney?
What are the two functions of the Nephron?
- 1. Filtration
- 2. Reabsorption
What 3 factors does the degree of filtration depend on?
- 1. Blood Pressure
- 2. Actual Amount of Blood
- 3. Follow the Laws of Diffusion
What are the 6 freeley filtered substances?
- 1. Water
- 2. Electrolytes
- 3. Amino Acid
- 4. Glucose
- 5. Urea
- 6. Creatinine
Where does urea come from?
Protein Breakdown -> Ammonia -(Coverts by Liver)-> Urea -> Urine
Where does creatinine come from?
Muscle (cell metabolism) contraction -> creatinine -> urine
Reabsorption of substances from the __________ ____________ to the ___________ _______________.
Reabsorption of substances from the Renal Tubules to the Blood Stream.
What are the 2 factors that can crontrol reabsorption?
- 1. Hormones
- 2. Blood Glucose Levels
ADH comes from the ____________
Tells the _____________ _____________ to absorb water.
____________________ comes from the adrenals.
Controls ______ reabsorption and _______ excretion.
- ADH comes from the Pituitary.Tells the Renal Tubules to absorb water.
- Aldosterone comes from the adrenals.
- Controls NaCl reabsorption and K+ excretion.
Normal Blood Glucose Level
What are the 3 processes of urine formation?
- 1. Filtration
- 2. Rabsorption
- 3. Storage/Excretion
What are the 2 types of urine collection samples?
- 1. Early Morning Sample
- 2. Recently Formed Sample
Advantages and Disadvantages for Early Morning Sample collection.
- AdvantagesShows urine concentration
- Increase chance of observing abnormalities like crystals.
- DisadvantagesPoor cytology
Advantages and Disadvantages for Recently Formed Sample.
- AdvantagesGood for cytology
- DisadvantagesMay not show urine concentration
- Dilute urine causes a HYPOTONIC solution, lysing RBC's
What are the 4 methods of urine collection?
- 1. Voided (free catch)
- 2. Manual Expression
- 3. Catheterization
- 4. Cystocentesis
Advantages to Voided collection?
- Easiest on Animal
- No iatrogenic trauma/infxn
- Owner can do this, and bring sample in.
Disdavantages to voided free catch collection?
- 1. May need sample now but animal doesn't have to go.
- 2. Not the best method for culture.
For a voided (aka free catch) method, how do you collect urine from cats, horses, and cattle?
- Cats: empty litter pan, plastic beads, packing peanuts, seran wrap, trash liner on litter.
- Horses: rubbing warm wet clotch on the lower abdomen
- Cattle: stimulate urination by tickling vulva
What is the advantage to manual expression?
When the patient is under anesthesia prior to a surgery (spay, laparotomy) it's best to express the bladder prior to incision to get the bladder of the way, and decrease chances of cutting the bladder.
Disadvantages for manual expression collection?
- 1. May require anesthesia
- 2. Big dogs with tense abdominal muscles
- 3. May cause iatrogenic trauma/infxn
- 4. Could rupture bladder
- 5. If patient has cystitis , can drive bacteria up ureters and cause a pyelonephritis.
True False You can manually express the bladder even if there is an obstruction.
FALSE! Never express a bladder with an obstruction
Advantages to catheterization collection?
- 1. Can usually get sample right away
- 2. Can relieve urinary obstruction
- 3. If using a Foley; can moniter urinary output
- 4. Okay to use for culture
Disadvantages to catheterization collection?
- 1. Iatrogenic trauma/infx
- 2. May require anesthesia (cats, female dogs)
Types of Catheters used...
- Cats - Tom Cat Catheter
- Dogs - Red Rubber Catheter
- Polypropylene Catheter
- Females - Metal Bitch Catheter
What do you do to the catheter before removing it? Why?
Pinch the tubing before pulling it out so you don't spray urine everywhere.
How long can urine sit at room temperature?
What occurs to the urine has time progresses?
- 1. Bacteria multiple
- 2. Cells disintigrate
- 3. Urine gets cloudy
- 4. Crystals increase in number
- 5. Casts breakdown
- 6. pH changes
How long can a urine sample be refridgerated up to?
What is the process of chemical preservation of urine?
1 drop of 40% fermaldehyde to 1 oz of urine.
What are the 4 parts to a routine u/a?
- 1. Macroscopic evaluation
- 2. USG
- 3. Urine chemistries
- 4. Microscopic evaluation
the function of kidneys and other organs.
What are the 4 components of a macroscopic evaluation?
- 1. Color
- 2. Clarity/Transparency
- 3. Odor
- 4. Foam
What are 5 reasons for discolored urine? Give 1 cause each.
- 1. Hematuria - uroliths
- 2. Hemoglobinuria - IAHA
- 3. Myoglobiniuria - Exertional rhabdomyolysis
- 4. Bilirubinuria - HBO
- 5. Misc. - Psuedomonas
Normal clarity/transparency for carnivores, equids, ruminants, and lab animals.
- Increases concentration
- EquineCloudy due to crystals and mucus
- RuminantsClear = Freshly excreted
- Cloudy = after standing
- Lab AnimalsCloud almost milky.
If the odor of urine is strong ammonia may indicate _________ due to __________ ___________- ______________.
If __________ & ___________ smell, may indicate pseudomonas or ketons (due to D.M)
- If the odor of urine is strong ammonia may indicate Cystitis due to Urease Positive Bacteria.
- If Sweet & Fruity smell, may indicate pseudomonas or ketons (due to D.M)
The presence of foam may indicate?