Horses: rubbing warm wet clotch on the lower abdomen
Cattle: stimulate urination by tickling vulva
What is the advantage to manual expression?
When the patient is under anesthesia prior to a surgery (spay, laparotomy) it's best to express the bladder prior to incision to get the bladder of the way, and decrease chances of cutting the bladder.
Disadvantages for manual expression collection?
1. May require anesthesia
2. Big dogs with tense abdominal muscles
3. May cause iatrogenic trauma/infxn
4. Could rupture bladder
5. If patient has cystitis , can drive bacteria up ureters and cause a pyelonephritis.
True False You can manually express the bladder even if there is an obstruction.
FALSE! Never express a bladder with an obstruction
Advantages to catheterization collection?
1. Can usually get sample right away
2. Can relieve urinary obstruction
3. If using a Foley; can moniter urinary output
4. Okay to use for culture
Disadvantages to catheterization collection?
1. Iatrogenic trauma/infx
2. May require anesthesia (cats, female dogs)
Types of Catheters used...
Cats - Tom Cat Catheter
Dogs - Red Rubber Catheter
Females - Metal Bitch Catheter
What do you do to the catheter before removing it? Why?
Pinch the tubing before pulling it out so you don't spray urine everywhere.
How long can urine sit at room temperature?
What occurs to the urine has time progresses?
1. Bacteria multiple
2. Cells disintigrate
3. Urine gets cloudy
4. Crystals increase in number
5. Casts breakdown
6. pH changes
How long can a urine sample be refridgerated up to?
What is the process of chemical preservation of urine?
1 drop of 40% fermaldehyde to 1 oz of urine.
What are the 4 parts to a routine u/a?
1. Macroscopic evaluation
3. Urine chemistries
4. Microscopic evaluation
the function of kidneys and other organs.
What are the 4 components of a macroscopic evaluation?
What are 5 reasons for discolored urine? Give 1 cause each.
1. Hematuria - uroliths
2. Hemoglobinuria - IAHA
3. Myoglobiniuria - Exertional rhabdomyolysis
4. Bilirubinuria - HBO
5. Misc. - Psuedomonas
Normal clarity/transparency for carnivores, equids, ruminants, and lab animals.
EquineCloudy due to crystals and mucus
RuminantsClear = Freshly excreted
Cloudy = after standing
Lab AnimalsCloud almost milky.
If the odor of urine is strong ammonia may indicate _________ due to __________ ___________- ______________.
If __________ & ___________ smell, may indicate pseudomonas or ketons (due to D.M)
If the odor of urine is strong ammonia may indicate Cystitis due to Urease Positive Bacteria.
If Sweet & Fruity smell, may indicate pseudomonas or ketons (due to D.M)