Card Set Information

2010-04-04 00:13:04

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  1. Mobitz I
    • Usually due to inferior MI, rarely goes into 3rd degree block
    • Tx w/ Atropine or Isoproterenol
  2. Mobitz II
    BBB association. Often goes to 3rd degree AV block. Usually due to anterior MI
  3. P wave
    atrial depol
  4. a wave
    LA contraction
  5. T wave
    Ventricular repol
  6. Wavy fibers
    • Eosinophilic bands of necrotic myocytes
    • Early signs of MI
  7. Janeway's lesions
    • Acute bacterial endocarditis
    • Nontender, erythematous lesions of palms and soles
  8. Osler's Nodes
    • Subacute bacterial endocarditis
    • Tender lesions of fingers and toes
  9. Thiamine deficiency
    • Wet Beri Beri heart. Dilated (congestive) cardiomyopathy due to chronic alcoholic consumption
    • Dry Beri Beri = peripheral neuropathy
    • Wernicke-Korsakoff = ataxia, confusion, confabulation, memory loss
  10. Fibrinous Pericarditis
    Associated w/ MI: Dressler's
  11. Serous Pericarditis
    Associated w/ nonbacterial; viral (coxsackie) infection; immunologic reaction
  12. Friction Rub
    Pericarditis association
  13. Hemorrhagic Pericarditis
    Associated w/ TB or neoplasm
  14. Restrictive Cardiomyopathy
    • AKA infiltrative cardiomyopathy that stiffens the heart
    • Due to amyloidosis in the elderly
    • Also seen in schaumann & asteroid bodies in young (<25 yo)
  15. PML's infectious agent
    JC Virus (papovaviurs = dsDNA, naked icosahedral capsid)
  16. Edema
    • Increase Pc (more seeps out)
    • Decreased oncotic pressure (less reabsorbed)
    • increased permeability
    • Block lymphatic drainage
  17. Adult polycystic kidney disease
    • Commonly see liver cysts & Berry aneurysms along w/ kidney cysts. Hematuria & HTN also present
    • 3 cysts in each Kidney w/ + family hx conforms dx
  18. Malignant HTN & Kidneys
    Petechial hemorrhages are seen on kidney surfaces = Flea - Bitten surface = young black men
  19. Nephritic Signs
    hematuria; RBC casts; HTN
  20. Nephrotic Signs
    Proteinuria; Hypoalbuminemia; Edema
  21. Podocyte Effacement seen w/
    Minimal change (lipid nephrosis) disease
  22. ASO seen in
    • Acute post-streptococcal GN (due to beta HGA Strep)
    • Anti streptolysin O
  23. Crescentic GN
    • Rapidly progressive GN -- nephritic syndrome
    • Associated w/ mult system disease or post-strep/post infectious glomerular nephritis
  24. Hereditary Nephritis
    • Alport's syndrome. X linked
    • Renal disease w/ deafness and ocular abnormalities
  25. Membranoproliferative GN
    • Can be secondary to complement deficiency; chronic infectious CCL
    • See tram tracking
  26. Type I Membranoproliferative GN deposits
    C3 & IgG deposits
  27. Type II Membranoproliferative GN deposits
    • Only C3 deposits
    • AKA dense deposit disease
  28. Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis deposits
    IgM & C3 deposits
  29. Cold agglutinins
    • Seen in atypical pneumonia
    • It is IgM Ab w/ specificity for I Ag on adult RBC
  30. Scrofula
    TB in lymph nodes
  31. Aspirin - Asthma Triad
    Nasal Polyps - Rhinitis - bronchoconstriction
  32. Ferruginous bodies
    Hemosiderin (pigment w/ Fe3-) covered macrophages that have been phagocytised
  33. Pancoast's tumor causes
    Ulnar nerve pain & Horner's syndrome
  34. Fatty degeneration
    • Make up primary of triglycerides
    • Most commonly due to alcoholism which commonly leads to hepatic cirrhosis
    • Associated w/ CCl4-
  35. Cloudy swelling
    • Failure of cellular Na pump
    • Seen in fatty degeneration of the liver an in Hydropic (Vaculoar) degeneration of the liver
  36. Hydropic degeneration
    • severe form of cloudy swelling
    • seen w/ hypokalemia induced by vomiting/diarrhea
  37. Liquefaction necrosis
    • Rapid enzymatic break down of lipids
    • Seen commonly in brain and spinal cord (CNS) injuries
    • Seen in suppurative infections = pus formation
  38. Coagulation necrosis
    • Result of sudden ischemia
    • Seen in organs w/ end arteries limited collateral circulation = heart, lung, kidney, slpeen
  39. Caseation necrosis
    • Combo of both coagulation & liquefaction necrosis
    • Seen w/ TB and Histoplasma capsulatum infection
  40. Fibrinoid necrosis
    • Seen in walls of small arteries
    • Associated w/ malignant hypertension, polyarterties nodosa, immune metidated vasculitis
  41. Fat Necrosis
    • Result of lipase actions liberated from pancreatic enzymes
    • Seen w/ acute pancreatitis = saponification results
  42. Pulmonary Embolism
    Most commonly thrombus from LE vein
  43. Phlebothrombosis
    • From a vein of LE, a pregnant uterus, in congestive HF, bed ridden pt
    • As a complication in a pt w/ pancreatic CA due to increased blood coagulability
  44. Saddle embolus
    • Embolus logged in bifurcation of pulmonary trunks
    • Increased RV strain = RV & RA dilate = Acute cor pulmonale
  45. Paradoxical Embolism
    • R to L shunt allows venous emboli to enter arterial circulation
    • Patent ovale foramen or ASD
  46. Tuberculoid granuloma
    • Collection of macrophages w/o caseation
    • Seen w/ Sarcoidosis (non-caseating): syphilis, Brucellosis and Leprotic infection
  47. Cellulitis
    Spreading infection due to streptococcus
  48. Increased 5-HT
    In cases of metastatic carcinoid, tx w/ Methysergide (5HT antagonist)
  49. Increased alpha feto-protein
    • Hepatocarcinoma
    • Neural tube defects
  50. CEA
    Carcinoembryonic Antigen = elevated in colon ca
  51. Chromosome 13
  52. Chromosome 11p
    Wilms tumor of the kidney
  53. Vinyl chloride
    associated w/ angiosarcoma of liver
  54. Agent Orange
    • Contains dioxin
    • Implicated as a cause of Hodgkin's, non-Hodgkin's and soft tissue sarcomas
  55. Parasites & CA
    • Schistosoma haematobium = urinary bladder ca
    • S. mansoni = Colon ca
    • Aspergillus flavus = poteint hepatocarcinogen
  56. Ochronosis
    • Alkaptonuria
    • Error in tyrosine metabolism due to Homogentisic acid (oxidizes tyrosine)
    • Involving intervertebral disk = Ankylosing Spondilitis = Poker Spine
    • Seen dark urine, dark coloration of sclera, tendons, cartilage
  57. Lead poisoning
    • Acid fast inclusion bodies
    • Increase urinary coproprophyrin
    • Anemia: microcytic / hypochromic
    • Stippling of basophils
    • Gingival line & lead line in bones - xray
    • Mental retardation
  58. Heroin OD, Clinically
    Massive pulmonary edema w/ frothy fluid from nostrils
  59. Fetal alcohol syndrome
    Small head, small eyes, funnel chest, ASD, mental deficiency and hirstuism
  60. Atypical mycobacterium
    M. kanasasii & M. avium intracellulare
  61. Cold abscess
    Liquified TB lesions similar to pyogenic abscess but lacking acute infection
  62. Actinomyces isrealli
    • Farmers infection
    • Lumpy jaw (from chewing grain) & PID (IUD), but most common is due to saprophyticus
  63. Congenital Syphilis
    Saddle nose, Saber shin, Hutchinson's teeth, nerve deafness, interstitial keratitis
  64. Warthin-Finkeledy Cells
    • Reticuloendothelial giant cells on tonsils, lymph nodes, spleen
    • Seen with Rubeloa (measles) due to paramyxovirus
  65. Diphyllobothrium latum
    Tapeworm infection causing megaloblactic anemia by consuming large amount of B12 in the host
  66. Subacute Bacterial Endocarditis
    alpha-hemolytic streptococci (S. viridans) usually in pt w/ pre-existing heart problem
  67. Acute Bacterial Endocarditis
    • Staph aureus, beta-hemolytic streptococci, E. coli
    • Common among drug addicts and diabetics
  68. Mitral Insufficiency
    Ruptured papillary muscle
  69. Left anterior descending branch
    • Branch of the left coronary artery
    • highest frequency of thrombotic occlusion
    • MI = anterior wall of LV, especially in apical part of intraventricular septum
  70. Left Circumflex branch
    • Branch of Left Coronary Artery
    • Occlusion = MI of posterior/lateral wall of the LV
  71. Dissecting Aneurysm
    • False aneurysm: it is splitting of the media of the aorta
    • Usually accompanied w/ long history of severe hypertension, also seen w/ familial hyperlipidemia, atherosclerotic disease, Marfan's collagen disease
    • Zones of medial necrosis +/- slit-like cysts = Medial Cystic Necrosis of Erdheim
  72. Cor Pulmonale
    Right ventricular strain, associated w/ right ventricular hypertrophy
  73. Acute Cor Pulmonale
    Sudden right ventricular strain due to a massive pulmonary embolism
  74. Bronchopenumonia
    • Lobular (rather than lobar)
    • Due to Staph aureus; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Klebsiella; E.coli
    • Abscess formation is common
  75. Lobar Pneumonia
    • Due to Strep. pneumoniae infection (5%due to Klebsiella)
    • Red Hepatization: days 1-3 of pneumonia
    • Grey Hepatizaiton: days 3-8 of untreated pneumonia
    • Complications: pleural effusion; atelectasia; fibrinous pleuritis; empyema; fibrinous pericarditis; otitis media
  76. Bronchiectasis
    • Permanent dilation of bronchi - predisposed by chronic sinusitis and post nasal drip
    • Supparation association
    • Lower lobe > than upper lobe involvement
  77. Cold Agglutinins
    Found w/ Mycoplasma pneumoniae
  78. Panlobular Emphysema
    Alpha 1 - antitrypsin deficiency, causing elastase increase = increase compliance in lung
  79. Bulla
    Associated w/ Emphysema = "Bleb" = outpouching - If it ruptures causes Pneumothorax
  80. Farmers Lung
    Due to Micropolyspora faeni (thermophilic actinomycetes)
  81. Bagassois
    • Due to M. vulgaris (actinomycetes)
    • Inhalation of sugar cane dust
  82. Silo-Filler's Lung
    Due to Nitrogen dioxide from nitrates in corn
  83. G6PDH deficiency
    • Sex-linked chronic hemolytic anemia w/o challenge or after eating fava beans
    • Heinz Bodies appear in RBC's
  84. HbF increase
    Sickle Cell Anemia
  85. Multiple Myeloma
    • Lytic lesions of flat bones ("salt and pepper lesions") = vertebrae, ribs, skull; Hypercalcemia; Bence-Jones protein casts
    • Weakness; weight loss; recurrent infection; proteinuria; anemia; increased proliferation of plasma cells in BM plasma cell dx
    • Serum M protein spike - most often of IgG or IgA
    • Hypercalcemia (increased bone destruction)
  86. Hodgkin's Disease
    • Malignant neoplasm of lymph nodes causing puritis; fever = looks like an acute infection
    • Reed Sternberg cells
  87. Polyarthritis Nodosa
    • Immune complex disease of Ag-Ab complexes on blood vessel wall
    • Half of the immune complexes have Hepatitis B Ag
    • Can see fever; abdominal pain; decreased weight; HTN; muscle aches
  88. Sprue
    • Celiac disease due to a gluten-induced enteropathy = small intestine villi are blunted
    • High titers of anti-gliadin Abs & increased IgA levels
  89. Regional Enteritis
    • Crohn's Disease
    • Association w/ Arthritis; Uveitis; Erythema Nodosum
  90. Whipple's Disease
    Intestinal Lipodystrophy = malabsorption syndrome
  91. Kulchitsky cells
    Neural crest cells from which carcinoids arise = of the Bronchi, GIT, Pancreas
  92. Ulcerative Colitis
    • Inflammatory disease of the colon w/ increased colon CA incidence
    • Crypt abscess in the crypts of Lieberkuhn
    • Pseudopolyps when ulcers deep
    • Not transmural involvement
  93. Vaginal Adenosis
    • Women exposed to DES (Diethylstilbesterol) in utero before the 18th week of pregnancy
    • Some develop clear cell adenocarcinoma of cervix and vagina
  94. Scirrhous Carcinoma
    Infiltrating Duct Carcinoma w/ fibrosis - most common type of breast carcinoma
  95. Hofbauer Cells
    Lipid laden macrophages seen in villi of Erythroblastosis Fetalis
  96. Retinopathy of Prematurity
    Retroletal Fibroplasia = cause of blindness in premies due to high O2 concentrations
  97. IgA Deficiency
    • Pt has recurrent infections & diarrhea w/ increased respiratory tract allergy & autoimmune disease
    • If given blood w/ IgA = develop severe, fatal anaphylaxis reaction
  98. Primary Sjorgen's
    Dry eyes & dry mouth, arthritis, increased risk for B cell lymphoma. HLA-DR3 frequent. Autoimmune disease
  99. Secondary Sjorgen's
    • Rheumatoid arthritis, SLE, or systemic sclerosis association
    • RA association shows HLA-DR4
  100. LDH1 & LDH2
    Myocardium. LDH1 higher than LDH2 = MI
  101. LDH3
    Lung tissue
  102. LDH 4 & LDH 5
    Liver cells
  103. Keratomalacia
    Severe vit A deficiency. See Bitot's spots in eyes = grey plaques = thickened, keratinized ET
  104. Metabisfite Test
    • Suspending RBCs in low O2 content solution
    • Can detect Hemoglobin S, which sickles in low O2
  105. Microangiopathic hemolytic Anemia
    • Can be due to HUS or TTP
    • See helmet cells
  106. Wright stain
    Stain for Burkitt's lymphoma
  107. Mononucleosis
    • Due to EBV infection
    • If Mono is treated w/ Amphicillin, thinking that it is strep pharyngitis, a rash will occur
  108. T(8:14)
    Burkitt's lymphoma = c-myc oncogene overexpression
  109. T(9;22)
    CML = c-abl/bcr gene formation = Philadelphia translocation
  110. Langerhan Cell Histocytosis
    • Letter Siwe syndrome; Hand Schuller Christian Disease; Eosinophilic Granuloma
    • Birbeck granules are present = tennis racket shape
  111. Myeloid Metaplasia
    • Alkaline phosphate increased/normal compared to CML = low to absent
    • Anemia; splenomegaly; platelets > 1 million = extensive extra-medullary hematopoiesis
  112. T(14;18)
    NH Lymphoma = bcl2 proto-oncogene over-expression seen w/ Small Cleaved Cell (Follicular) Lymphoma)
  113. Focal Segmental GN exs
    IgA Focal GN = Berger's disease; SLE; PAN; Schonlein-Henoch purpura (anaphylactoid purpura)
  114. Nephrotic Syndrome exs
    Focal (segmental) GN; Membranous GN; Lipoid (minimal change); Membranoproliferative GN; Hep B; Syphilis; Penicillamine
  115. Schistosoma Haemotobium
    • Infection is associated w/ Squamous cell CA of the bladder (most common Bladder CA is transitional cell type)
    • Associated w/ portal HTN due to intrahepatic obstruction
  116. Penicillin Resistant PID
    PID is usually due to N. Gonorrhoeae, but if unresponsive to penicillin think of Bacteroides species
  117. Duret Hemorrhages
    • Severe increase in ICP w/ downward displacement of cerebellar tonsils into Foramen Magnum causing a compression on the brainstem w/ hemorrhaging into the pons and midbrain
    • Nearly always associated w/ death due to damage to the vital centers in these areas
  118. Hypertensive Hemorrhage
    Predilection for lenticulostriate arteries = putamen & internal capsule hemorrhage
  119. Cerebral Embolism Form
    MI w/ Mural Thrombi; Atrial Fib Thrombi - Marantic thrombi; L-sided Bacterial Endocarditis; paradoxical emboli of septal defect
  120. Neurosyphilis
    • Tabes Dorsalis = decreased joint position sensation, decreased pain sensation, ataxia, Argyl Robertson pupil
    • Syphilitic meningitis
    • Paretic neurosyphilis
  121. 5p -
    Cri di Chat: mental retardation; small head; wide set eyes; low set ears; cat like cry
  122. Trisomy 13
    Patau's: small head & eyes; cleft lip & palate; many fingers
  123. Acute Cold Agglutination
    • Abs to I blood group Ag. mediated by IgM Abs
    • Complication of EBV of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections
  124. Chronic Cold Agglutination
    Associated w/ lymphoid neoplasms. See agglutination & hemolysis in tissues exposed to cold IgM Abs
  125. RBC Osmotic Fragility
    Hereditary Spherocytosis
  126. Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma
    • Small Lymphocytic: low grade B cell lymphoma of elderly. Related to CLL
    • Small Cleaved cell (Follicular): low grade B cell lymphoma of the elderly. T(14:18) bcl-2 oncogene
    • Large cell
    • Lymphoblastic: high grade T cell lymphoma of kids progressing to T-ALL
    • Small Non Cleaved = Burkitt's: high grade B cell lymphoma. EBV infection, Starry sky histo appearance. T(8:14) c-myc proto-oncogene. Related to B-ALL
  127. Singer's Nodules
    Benign laryngeal polyps associated w/ smoking & overuse of the voice
  128. Paraseptal emphysema
    Associated w/ blebs (large subpleural bullae) that can rupture and cause pneumothorax
  129. Superior Vena Cava Syndrome
    Obstructed due to bronchogenic carcinoma. Causing swollen face & cyanosis
  130. Betel Nuts
    Associated to oral cancer
  131. Fundal (Type A) Gastritis
    Antibodies to parietal cells; pernicious anemia; autoimmune disease
  132. Antrial (Type B) Gastritis
    Associated with Helicobacter (Campylobacter) pylori infection. 90% duodenal ulcer
  133. Primary Biliary Cirrhosis
    • Autoimmune origin; middle aged women; anti-mitochondiral Abs
    • Jaundice; itching; hypercholesterolemia (can see cutaneous xanthomas)
  134. Acute Pancreatitis
    • Increase pancreatic enzymes = fat necrosis; sapponification = hypocalcemia; increase serum amylase
    • Severe epigastric ab pain; prostration; radiation to the back
  135. Radiating Back Pain
    Chronic pancreatitis
  136. Complete Hydatidiform Mole
    No embryo, Paternal derivation only, 46 XX
  137. Partial Hydatidiform Mole
    Embryo. 2 or more sprems fertilized 1 ovum: triploidy/tetraploidy occurs
  138. Cold Nodules
    • Hypoplastic Goiter nodules that do not take up radio active iodine.
    • [Opposite hot and do take up iodine]
  139. Acidophils
    • Mammotrophs = Prolactin
    • Somatotrophs = GH
  140. Basophils
    • Thyrotrophs = TSH
    • Gonadotrophs = LH
    • Corticotrophs = ACTH & FSH
  141. Lacunar Strokes
    • Small / focal aa occlusions. Purely motor or sensory
    • Sensory: lesion of thalamus
    • Motor: lesion of internal capsule
  142. CSF of Bacterial Meningitis
    • decrease glucose
    • increase protein, neutrophils and pressure
  143. CSF of Viral Meningitis
    • Normal glucose; +/- increased protein
    • increased lymphocytes
  144. Marble Bone Disease
    Osteoporosis: Albers-Schonbred Disease = in-spite of increased bone density, many fractures = decreased osteoclasts
  145. C5a
    Involved in Chemotaxins (for Neutrophils)
  146. C3b
    Involved in Opsonization (and IgG)
  147. Anaphylotoxins
    C3a and C5a (mediate Histamine release from Basophils & Mast cells)
  148. Vasoactive Mediators
    • Vasoconstriction: TxA2; LTC4; LTD4; LTE4; PAF
    • Vasodilation: PGI2; PGD2; PGE2; PGF2a; Bradykinin; PAF
    • Increased Vascular Permeability: Hist; 5HT; PGD2; PGE2; PGF2a; LTC4; LTD4; LTE4; Bradykinin; PAF
  149. Platelet Aggregation
    ADP; Thrombin; TxA2; collagen; Epi; PAF
  150. Platelet Antagonist
    Prostacyclin (PGI2)
  151. Intrinsic Pathway
    F XII (Hangman); aPTT
  152. Extrinsic Pathway
    F VII: PT
  153. Lines of Zahn
    Aterial thrombi = pale red colored (dark red is venous thrombi)
  154. Currant Jelly appearance
    post mortem clots
  155. Emigration: chemotaxins
    • Margination
    • Pavementing
    • Adhesion
    • Chemotaxis
    • Phagocytosis
    • Intracellular microbial killing
  156. Transudate
    Specific gravity <1.012 - low protein
  157. Exudate
    Specific gravity >1.020 - high protein
  158. Hurler's
    • Lysosomal storage disease
    • alpha L Iduronidase - Heparan/ Dermatan Sulfate accumulation
  159. Galactosemia
    • Deficiency of Galactose 1 Phosphate Uridyl Transferase.
    • Increase Galactose 1 Phosphate
  160. Phenyketonuria
    • Deficiency: Phenylalanine Hydroxylase. Increase phenyalanine & degradation products
    • Mousy body odor
  161. Autosomal Dominant Diseases
    • Adult Poly Cystic Kidney Disease
    • Familial Hypercholestrolemia Disease
    • Hereditary hemorrhagic Telengectasia (Osler-Weber-Rendu)
    • Hereditary Spherocytosis
    • Huntington's Disease (chromosome 4p)
    • Marfan's Syndrome
    • Neurofibromatosis (von Recklinghausen's)
    • Tuberous Sclerosis
    • Von Hippel Lindau Disease
  162. Autosomal Recessive Diseases
    • Tay-Sachs
    • Gaucher's
    • Niemann-Pick
    • Hurler's
    • Von Gierke's
    • Pompe's
    • Cori's
    • McArdle's
    • Galactosemia
    • PKU
    • Alcaptonuria
  163. X-Linked Recessive
    • Hunter's Syndrome (L-Iduronosulfate Sulfatase deficiency, increased Heparan/Dermatan Sulfate)
    • Fabry's Disease (alpha Galactoside A deficiency, increased Ceremide Trihexoside)
    • Classic Hemophilia A (Factor VIII deficiency, F8 gene on X chromosome is bad, increased Ceremide Trihexoside)
    • Lisch-Nyhan Syndrome (HGPRT deficiency, increased Uric acid)
    • G6 Phosphatase deficiency (G6PDH deficiency, increased Ceremide Trihexoside)
    • Duchenne's Muscular Dystrophy (Dystrophin deficiency, increased Ceremide Trihexoside)
  164. Hypersensitivity Reactions "ACID"
    • Type I (anaphylactic): IgE mediated, Ex: hay fever, allergic asthma; hives
    • Type II (Cytotoxic): warm Ab autoimmune hemolytic anemia; hemolytic transfusion reactions; Erythroblastosis Fetalis; Grave's Disease; Goodpastures
    • Type III (Immune Complex): Insoluble complement bound to aggreates of Ab-Ag complexes. Ex: Serum sickness, arthrus reaction, polyartheritis nodosa, SLE, Immune complex mediated glomerular disease
    • Type IV (Delayed = cell mediated immunity): delayed hypersensitivity, involves memory cells. Ex: Tuberculin reaction, contact dermatitis, tumor cell killing, virally infected cell killing
  165. Transplant Rejections
    • Hyperacute Rejection: occurs w/in min of transplant Ab mediated
    • Acute Rejection: occurs w/in days to months of transplant. Lymphocytes and macrophages. Only rejection type that can be treated w/ therapy
    • Chronic Rejection: occurs months to years after transplant. Ab mediates vascular damage
  166. Blood Metastasis
    Sarcoma, exception - renal cell Ca: early venous invasion
  167. Lymph Metastasis
    Carcinoma, exception renal cell CA: early venous invasion
  168. Aflatoxin
    Seen w/ Aspergillus. Increased risk for hepatocellular CA
  169. Cleft Lip
    Incomplete fusion of maxillary prominence w/ median nasal prominence
  170. Cleft Palate
    Incomplete fusion of lateral palatine process w/ each other and medial nasal prominence and medial palatine prominence
  171. Craniopharyngioma
    Pituitary tumor - usually calcified
  172. Lateral Geniculate Nucleus
    Involved in vision relay
  173. Medial Geniculate Body
    Involved in hearing relay
  174. Lung Development
    • Glandular: 5-17 weeks
    • Canalicular: 13-25 weeks
    • Terminal Sac: 24 weeks to birth
    • Alveolar period: birth to 8yo
  175. Heart's 1st beat
    21-22 days
  176. Foregut
    Mouth --> common bile duct - supplied by celiac artery
  177. Midgut
    Duodenum, just below common bile duct --> splenic flexure of the colon supplied by superior mesenteric artery
  178. Hindgut
    Splenic Flexure --> Butt crack --> supplied by inferior mesenteric artery
  179. Hypnagogic Hallucinations
  180. Subdural Hematoma
    Ruptured cerebral bridging veins
  181. Epidural Hematoma
    Ruptured middle meningeal artery "intervals of lucidness" 2nd to Temporal bone fx
  182. Type I Error
    alpha: "convicting the innocent" - accepting experimental hypothesis/rejecting null hypothesis
  183. Type II Error
    beta: "setting the guilty free" = fail to reject the null hypothesis when it was false
  184. Power
    1 - beta (type II error)
  185. Sensitivity
    • TP/ (TP + FN)
    • SNOUT
  186. Specificity
    • TN / (TN + FP)
    • SPIN
  187. Positive Predictive Value
    TP / (TP + FP)
  188. Negative Predictive Value
    TN / (TN+FN)
  189. Odds Ratio
  190. d - Dimers
  191. Delusion
    Disorder of thought content
  192. Loose Association
    Skip from topic to topic
  193. 5 Stages of Death
    Denial - Anger - Bargaining - Depression - Acceptance
  194. 1st Branchial Arch
    Meckel's Cartilage - gives rise incus / malleus bones of ear
  195. 2nd Branchial Arch
    Reichert's cartilage - gives rise to stapes bone of ear
  196. Median Nerve lesion
    No pronation
  197. Radial nerve lesion
    wrist drop - seen w/ humerus fracture
  198. Common peroneal lesion
    foot drop, no dorsifelxion or eversion of foot
  199. Direct inguinal hernia
    • Goes through superficial inguinal ring
    • Medial to inferior epigastric artery
    • Seen in older men
  200. Indirect inguinal hernia
    • Goes through deep and superficial inguinal ring
    • Lateral to inferior epigastric artery
    • Sen in young boys - processus vaginalis did not close
  201. Diaphragm T8, T10, T12
    • T8 - IVC
    • T10 - Esophagus / Vagus
    • T12 - Aorta / Thoracic duct/ Azygous vein
  202. Hemiballism
    • Wild flailing of 1 arm
    • Lesion of the sub thalamic nucleus
  203. O Linked Oligosaccharide
    In golgi
  204. N Linked Oligosaccharide
    In RER
  205. MLF Syndrome
    Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia: medial rectus palsy on lateral gaze; Nystagmus on abducting eye. Seen w/ MS
  206. ADA Deficiency
  207. Raphe Nucleus
    Initiation of sleep via 5HT predominance
  208. Beta waves
    Alert, Awake; Active mind - also seen in REM, therefore we say "paradoxical sleep"
  209. Irreversible Glycolysis Enzymes
    • Hexokinase
    • PhosphoFructo Kinase = rate limiting step
    • Pyruvate Kinase
    • Pyruvate Dehydrogenase
  210. Irreversible Gluconeogenesis
    • PyruvateCarboxy Kinae
    • PEPCarboxyKinae
    • Fructose 1,6 BiPhosphatase
    • Glucose 6 Phosphatase
    • ***muscle does not take part in Gluconeogenesis, only takes place in liver, kidney and GI epithelium
  211. Pellagra
    • Diarrhea, Dermatitis, Dementia
    • Niacin Deficiency (Vit B3 deficiency)
    • Hartnup's Disease
    • Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome
    • INH use
  212. TLCFN
    Needed as co-factor for pyruvate DH complex and alpha ketoglutarate DH complex
  213. LCAT or PCAT
    • Esterification of cholesterol: lecithin cholesterol acetyltransferase
    • Lecithin = Phosphatidylcholine, therefore phosphotidylcholine acetyltransferase
  214. HMGCoA Reductase
    • Rate limiting step in cholesterol synthesis
    • Changes HMGCoA --> Mevalonate
    • (-) by Lovastatin
  215. Ketogenic amino acids
    Leucine & Lysine
  216. Glucogenic amino acids
    Methionine, Threonine, Valine, Arginine, Histadine
  217. Keto & Gluco amino acids
    Phenylaline, Trytophan, Isoleucine
  218. Carnitine Shuttle
    Feeds FA into the mitochondria for their consumption
  219. Cori Cycle
    • Keeps muscles working anaerobically
    • Transfers lactate to the liver to make glucose which is sent back into the muscles for energy use
  220. (-) Na pump (ATPase)
    • Ouabain [(-) K pump]
    • Vanadate [(-) phosphorylation]
    • Digoxin [increase heart contractility]
  221. TCA Cycle Products
    • "Citric Acid Is Krebs Starting Substrate For Mitochondrial Oxidation"
    • Citrate --> Aconitate --> Isocitrate --> alpha Ketoglutarate --> Succinyl --> Succinate --> Fumarate --> Malate --> OAA
  222. Cones
    Color vision. Contain Iodopsin = Red-Blue-Green specific pigment. For acuity
  223. Rods
    Contain Rhodopsin pigment. High sensitivity . Concentrated in the fovea. Night vision
  224. Gastrula
    Seen at 3rd week: Ecto, Meso, Endo
  225. Epiblast
    at 2nd week: forms the primitive streak, from which Meso & Endo come from. Directly gives rise to Ecto
  226. Sydenham's Chorea
    Post streptococcal infection. Necrotizing arteritis of the caudate, putamen, thalamus
  227. (+) Frei Test
    Chlamydia trachomatis types L1, L2, L3 = Lymphogranuloma venereum
  228. Sabouraud's Agar
    • Culture for all Fungi
    • ie... Culture Cryptococcus neofromans which is found in pigeon droppings
  229. FMR1 Gene Defect
    Fragile X Syndrome: macro-orchidism; long face; large jaw; large everted ears; autism, mental retardation
  230. Barr Body
    • Present in Kleinfelters: Male - XXY
    • Not present in Turner's Female - XO
  231. Aortic Insufficiency Signs
    • Traube Sign = Pistol shot sound over femoral vessels
    • Corrigan pulse = water hammer pulse over carotid artery = aortic regurgitation
  232. Scleroderma: "CREST"
    Calcinosis; Raynauds; Esophageal; Sclerodactyl; Telangiectasis
  233. Cretinism
    • Sporadic: bad T4 phosphorylation or developmental failure of thyroid formation
    • Endemic: no Iodine in diet - protruding belly and belly button
  234. Hemochromatosis Triad
    • Micronodular pigment cirrhosis
    • Bronze diabetics
    • Skin pigmentation = due to increased F3+deposition