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What is the CR entry for a supine AP abdomen (KUB)?
perpendicular to the IR at the level of the iliac crests (L4)
What is the CR entry for an upright AP abdomen?
horizontal entering 2” above the crests
Why would we do an upright abdomen as opposed to a KUB?
for free air, must include the diaphragm
Why would we do a PA abdomen in place of an AP?
when the kidneys are not of primary concern, a PA projection greatly reduced pt. gonadal dose
When performing a decubitus abdomen what steps should be taken to ensure fluid levels are accurately demonstrated?
allow the patient the lay for 5 minutes before the exposure is taken, and wait a couple seconds after exhalation for the exposure to allow fluids to settle
What is the CR entry for a lateral decubitus AP abdomen?
horizontal, perpendicular to the center of the IR, entering at the level of the iliac crests
What are the main evaluation criteria points for a KUB?
pubic symphysis to upper abdomen included, proper patient alignment, no patient rotation, soft tissue grays demonstrate necessary anatomy
How should a decubitus abdominal film be marked?
mark side up
Where should the CR be directed for a cross table decubitus abdomen?
2 inches above the crest. centered to the vertebral column or top of cassette at axilla
Why must a decubitus abdomen be done on the left side?
so that air in the fundus is not mistaken for free air
What is the pt. position for a decubitus abdomen?
pt. lays on L. side, flex knees and extend arms. Allow fluid to settle
a quality abdominal radiograph should demonstrate what anatomy?
sharply defined psoas muscles, lower border of liver, kidneys, ribs, transverse process of lumbar vertebrae
why is a PA CXR done with a “3-way” abdomen?
for free air below the diaphragm
why do we avoid doing a right lateral decubitus abdomen?
free air may be mistaken for air in the fundus of the stomach
Sternal/jugular notch level
Xiphoid process level
inferior costal rib margin
list the 3 parts of the small intestine
Duodenum, jejunum, ilium
what portion of the small intestine is considered to be the longest?
- Liver: intraperitoneal
- lower rectum: infraperitoneal
- Ureters: retroperitoneal
- Stomach: intraperitoneal
- Duodenum: retroperitoneal
major abdominal blood:
- Gallbladder: intraperitoneal
- upper rectum: retroperitoneal
- major abdominal blood: retroperitoneal
- reproductive organs: infraperitoneal
- speen: intraperitoneal
- cecum: intraperitoneal
- adrenal glands: retroperitoneal
- urinary bladder: infraperitoneal
- pancreas: retroperitoneal
- Duodenum: retroperitoneal
ascending and descending colon:
- ascending and descending colon: retroperitoneal
- sigmoid: intraperitoneal
- kidneys: retroperitoneal
- female parts: infraperitoneal
- ileum: intraperitoneal
what stabilizes and and supports the small intestine?
which one of the following structures is a double fold of peritoneum that connects the transverse colon to the greater curvature of the stomach?
the pancreas is located anterior or posterior to the stomach?
vermiform is located _____________ of the cecum?
posterior and medially
what causes voluntary motion and how can you prevent it?
patient breathing, and patient movement of during exposures can be prevented by careful breathing instructions
what causes involuntary motion and how to stop it?
peristalsis- and short exposure time
what is ascites?
abnormal accumulation of fluid in peritoneal cavity
how do you exam the gallbladder?
rotation can be determined on a KUB radiograph by the loss of symmetric appearance?
- obturator foramina
- flared ala wings
- ischial spine
- outer rib margin
if left side is narrowed what side are you on?
if your left side is flared what side are you on
A patient with a history of ascites com to the radiology department. Which one of the following positions best demonstrates this condition?
Erect AP abdomin
double walled membrane lining the abdominal cavity is called
which of the following soft tissue structures are seen on a properly exposed KUB?
which of the following soft tissues structures are seen properly exposed KUB?
the junction of the small and large intestine?
R Colic Flexure:
- cecum: RLQ
- Liver: RUQ
- Spleen: LUQ
- Stomach: LUQ
- R Colic Flexure: RUQ
- Sigmoid Colon: LLQ
- Appendix: RLQ
- Pancreas: RUQ LUQ
- Gallbladder: RUQ
what structure stores and releases bile?
what structure connects the small intestine to the posterior abdominal wall?
the kidneys are connected to the bladder by?
which specific decubitus position of the abdomen should be used in an acute abdomen series if the patient cannot stand?
Left Lateral decubitus
abdominal projections are taken upon inspiration or expiration?