biochem buzz words 5

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embryo
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127469
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biochem buzz words 5
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2012-01-12 15:43:40
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biochemistry
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MS1/Mod5: biochem
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  1. endocrine
    into circ to act on distant cells
  2. paracrine
    NOT into circ, local, on neighboring cells
  3. autocrine
    act on cells that sec them
  4. juxtacrine
    NOT sec, inserted into mem
  5. neuroendocrine
    nt sec by neurons into circ
  6. glucagon rec
    binds rec AND signal transduction (phosph LPK)
  7. EC50
    ligand conc for 1/2 max response
  8. KD
    ligand conc for 1/2 max occupancy of rec
  9. R0, Bmax
    max binding rec capcacity
  10. scatchard plot
    bound to free ratio hormone vs bound hormone
  11. G(alpha)s
    • B adrenergic amines, glucagon, PTH
    • downstream: AC
  12. G(alpha)i
    • Ach, alpha adrenergic amines, nt
    • downstream: inhib AC
  13. G(alpha)q
    • Ach, alpha adrenergic amines, nt
    • downstream: IP3, Ca (...PLC beta)
  14. G(alpha)t
    • photons
    • downstream: stim cGMP phosphodiesterase (breaks down cGMP)
  15. G(alpha)13
    • thrombin
    • downstream: Na/H exchange
  16. PLC beta
    • PIP2 into IP3 and DAG
    • Ca + DAG: stim PKC
    • Ca: stim calmodulin dep prot kinase
  17. ADP ribosylate G(alpha)s
    cholera; always on in gut...AC, cAMP, diarrhea
  18. ADP ribosylate G(alpha)i
    pertussis toxin; in airways, AC..cAMP stim
  19. intrinsic rec tyr kinases
    insulin rec, GF rec, EGF rec
  20. SH2 domain prot
    Grb-2, PLC-gamma, PI3K
  21. DAG analogs
    tumor suppressors, phorbolesters
  22. PDK1
    phosph/act PKB, act via PIP3 (from PI3K)
  23. PKB
    phosph/inact BAD, prevent cell death
  24. non-intrinsic rec tyr kinases
    cytokine rec, GH rec, PRL rec
  25. guanylate cyclase rec
    natriueretic pep rec, ligand gated ion channels
  26. GnRH, SRIF
    • GH
    • Liver (IGF-1)
  27. TRH
    • TSH
    • Thyroid (T3, T4)
  28. CRH
    • ACTH
    • adrenal cortex (cortisol)
  29. GnRH
    • LH, FSH
    • gonads (estrogen, androgen)
  30. JAK
    tyr kinase, GH signal transduction
  31. STAT
    phosph by GH rec, bind DNA seq encoding IGF-1
  32. SHC, IRS-1
    phosph by act tyr rec beta subunit
  33. IRS-1P
    act PI3K (via P110 and P85)
  34. PI3K
    act Akt, aPKC
  35. Akt
    act p70 and pp1 (gluc metab stim)
  36. aPKC
    inhib GSK3
  37. GSK3
    inhib gluc metab
  38. SHC-P
    act Grb-2
  39. Grb-2
    RAS, SOS
  40. RAS
    act Mek...MAP kinase
  41. ALS, MD, sarcopenia
    neuromuscular degenerative diseases
  42. PTH rx
    for osetopenia, osteoporosis, bone fracture repair
  43. HMG CoA reductase
    committed step in stage 1 chol biosynth
  44. 3-isopentenyl pyrophosphate
    building block for vit K2, Q10, farnesyl/geranylgeranyl attachment
  45. SREBP
    controls HMGCoA red synth
  46. dietary chol and mevalonate
    inhib HMGCoA red transL
  47. AMP-act protein kinase
    phosph HMGCoA reductase...inhib
  48. 7 alpha hydroxylase
    RLS bile salt synth
  49. cholyl CoA
    act intermed in bile salt synth; goes to glycocholate and taurocholate
  50. microsomal P450 mixed func monoxidases
    hydroxylations in bile salt synth
  51. LCAT
    lecithin chol acyl transferase; makes chol esters, in HDL in plasma
  52. ACAT
    acyl CoA chol acyltransferase; VLDL synth
  53. Apoprot B-100
    on LDL, clathrin coated pit
  54. unesterified chol
    mem biosynth, sterol synth, reesterified via ACAT for storage
  55. LDL structure
    • cysteine rich domain
    • 3 domains homol to EGF
    • 6 repeats similar to blades of transducin beta
    • rich in Ser an Thr w/ o-linked oligos
    • phobic, transmem
    • cytoplasmic
  56. pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)
    ACTH precursor
  57. POMC also makes...
    ACTH, beta lipoprot, alpha MSH, CLIP, gamma lipotropin, beta endorphin, beta MSH, met-enkephalin
  58. ACTH promotes
    • chol release from chol esters (storage form)
    • chol transport into mit
    • chol side chain cleavage into pregnenolone
  59. normal serum ACTH
    80ng/L
  60. normal serum cortisol
    50nmol/L at 12am
  61. normal urine cortisol
    250nmol/day
  62. Cushinoid
    cushing's syndrome due to therapy w/ glucocorticoids
  63. Cushing's disease
    cushing's syndrome due to tumor that inc ACTH
  64. primary addison's disease
    • autoimmune destruction cortex
    • impaired adrenal formation
    • def ACTH rec
    • def steroidogenesis
  65. secondary addison's disease
    dec ACTH
  66. addison's rx
    cortisol
  67. cushing's rx
    surgical ablation tumor
  68. familial glucocorticoid reistance
    inc serum cortisol but no hyperglucocorticoid response, mut rec w/ low aff
  69. 17 alpha hydroxylase
    rER, pregnenolone to 17 alpha hydroxyprenenolone
  70. 17,20 desmolase
    17 alpha hydroxypregnenolone to dehydroepiandrosterone
  71. 21 hydroxylase
    • rER
    • progesterone to 11 deoxycorticosterone
    • 17alphahydroxyprogesterone to 11 deoxycortisol
  72. 11 beta hydroxylase
    • mit
    • 11deoxycorticosterone to corticosterone
    • 11 deoxycortisol to cortisol
  73. 17 hydroxylase def
    • precocious pub (male)
    • masculine (female)
    • salt wasting, dehydration
    • dec cortisol....too much ACTH and DHEA
  74. 17hydroxylase/17,20 desmolase def
    • dec cortisol...dec renin hypertension
    • feminine (male)
    • no menstruation, 2 wrong (female)
  75. 11 beta hydroxylase def
    biphasic effects on salt and water retention
  76. ADH rec
    Gq..Ca...PKC/Ca cal dep kinase...sm mm contraction in vessels (VD)
  77. primary DI
    inc urine V (not sugary)..dec ADH
  78. hereditary nephrogenic DI
    mut ADH rec, hormone resistant
  79. SIADH
    inc ADH via tumor; dilutional hyponatremia
  80. aminopeptidase
    A2>A3
  81. atriopeptinogen
    • from atrial cardiocytes
    • converted into atripeptin (circ form)
  82. ateriosclerosis
    hardening of arteries (Ca deposition in walls)
  83. atherosclerosis
    • build up fatty deposits in arteries
    • CHF, stroke
  84. statins
    • HMGCoA red inhib
    • lovastatin
    • inc LDL rec, dec amt HMGCoA red made in hepatocytes
  85. Niacin
    dec TG synth via inhib synth FA, inhib VLDL synth
  86. cholestyramine
    • (+) polymer to inhib reabs bile (-)
    • promote excretion bile (more bile salt synth, more LDL liver uptake)
  87. fibric acid
    • gemfibrozil, lopid
    • inhib VLDL sec
  88. gallstones
    chol: bile salt >1, unsol chol crystallizes
  89. ER enz in cortical hormone synth
    • 21 hydroxylase
    • 17 alpha hydroxylase
  90. mit enz in cortical hormone synth
    • 11 beta hydroxylase
    • 18 hydroxylase
  91. conjugation salts
    glucouronide and sulfates
  92. steroid hormone rec
    located inside cell
  93. A/B domain steroid hormone rec
    variable, immunogenic
  94. C domain steroid hormone rec
    DNA binding...zinc fingers
  95. D domain steroid hormone rec
    hinge, transC modification
  96. E domain steroid hormone rec
    steroid binding, HS prot binding
  97. F domain steroid hormone rec
    HSP act domain
  98. androgen reistance syndrome
    • def DHT
    • normal urogenital, female ext genitalia
  99. rec + testosterone
    reg sec of LH in male sex differentiation, spermatogenesis
  100. rec + DHT
    dev male external genitalia, prostate

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