College Biology Midterm
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A circular DNA molecule that in some cases replicates independently of the main chromosome
A genetic sequence that codes for a tRNA, rRNA protein or other products
Techniques to engineer genes
Recombinant DNA Technology
Process of replacing or augmenting defective copies of the gene with the normal allele
Any technique for identifying individuals based on unique features in their genome
Organisms that have alleles that were modified by genetic engineering
The effort to sequence, interpret, and compare whole genomes
Segments of DNA that are capable of moving from one location to another
A substance that can carry foreign DNA
Creation of a map showing the relative positions of genes or specific DNA sequences on chromosomes
Method for producing many copies of a specific nucleotide sequence
Polymearse Chain Reaction (PCR)
A site in DNA where some individuals in the population have different bases
A gene coding for regulatory transcription factors that alter the expression of specific genes
The sequence of amino acids in a protein is determined by a message in the DNA molecule known as the ______.
DNA has the base Thymine,but RNA has a base known as _______.
The ultramicroscopic bodies of RNA and protein where amino acids are linked together in the cytoplasm are _________.
The nucleic acid responsible for carrying instructions for nuclear DNA into the cytoplasm is __________.
Transfer RNA molecule have the function of carrying to the ribosomes a series of ________.
Transcription is the process in which a strand of messenger RNA is synthesiszed according to the base code in _________.
the DNA template
In the synthesis of messenger RNA, the DNA strand is read in groups of three bases called ______.
Once it has been synthesiszed, the messenger RNA molecule leaves the cell nucleus through a _______.
Each transfer RNA molecule has a sequence of bases that complements the sequence in the codon and is known as the ___________.
The chemical linkage of amino acids to form a protein according to the message in the RNA molecules takes place at the ____________.
The union of many hundreds or thousands of amino acids results in an organic molecule called a ___________.
Once the messenger RNA molecule has been used, it is broken up and it's components are returned to the _______.
In the formation of messenger RNA molecules, the cell removes useless bits of RNA called ________.
The codon is a three-base group of nucleotides that specifies ...
an amino acid molecule
DNA does not participate in _________.
Protein synthesis in the cell could not occur in the absence of ___________ ___________ ___________.
amino acid molecules
A molecule of messenger RNA contains ...
exons but no introns
What enzyme is used to unzip or break the hydrogen bonds between nitrogen bases in DNA during replication?
The genetic code consists of the sequence of __________ in the DNA molecule.
Protein synthesis occurs in human cells along the membranes of the ___________ ___.
Cells undergo this process during formation. The process specializes cells for a particular task in the body.
A structured procedure for collecting info. to test a hypothesis.
A broad comprehensive statement supported by a lot of scientific evidnece that works as an explanation.
The part of an experiment that acts as a standard by which to compare
A stable level of internal conditions is __________.
A group of cells working together creates a __________.
The sum of all chemical reactions in an organism
Hereditary info. is passed from one generation to the next through this macromolecule
An organism that is composed of more than one cell is called ___________ __________.
The atomic number that indicates the number of ________ in the atom.
If the atom gains an electron, a(n) __________ is formed.
The amount of energy needed to start a reaction
This type of bond forms when oppositely charged particles are attracted to each other
A chemical substance that is common in living things that will neutralize small amounts of acids or bases
If an atom loses an electron, a ________ is formed.
This type of bond forms when atoms do not share electrons equally
polar covalent bond
If the nnumber of neutrons is changed in an atom, a __________ is made.
The total number of protons and neutrons in an atom is given by the _____ ___________.
If the number of electrons in an atom is changed, a(n) _______ is produced.
Energy is released in this type of reaction
Biological catalysts are called
A substance that produces hydroxide ions (OH-) in solution is called a(n) _________.
If two liquids are mixed, which is the solute?
the smaller quantity
All amino acids are identical in that they contain
NH2 and COOH
Amino acids differ from fatty acids in that ...
amino acids have NH2
Two amino acids join together by the process of ____________ to form a polymer called a(n) ___________.
- Dehydration synthesis
_______ structure is when alpha helix or beta pleated regions of the protein chain fold upon one another to produce ball-like molecules
____ ___________ helps proteins to achieve their functional 3-D structure and ensures that proteins fold quickly and accurately
A disaccharide is formed by
dehydration sythesis of 2 monosaccharides
The process that breaks down the polysaccharide is
Glucose, Fructose, and Galactose all have the molecular formula C6H12O6. They are chemically known as ___________.
A double strand of nucleotides are held together at their nitrogen containing bases by _______ ___________.
A ______ fat has double and triple bonds between its carbon atoms.
What do RNA and DNA have in common?
They are both composed of a 5 carbon sugar and phosphate group
The basic structure of many triglycerides (neutral fats) is
glycerol and 3 fatty acids
Lipids are insoluble in ______.
If a number of human cells were placed into a beaker containing a very salty solution...
the cells would tend to shrink
Phagocytosis is a form of endocytosis in which
the cell takes particulate matter into itself`
The movement of molecules from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration is referred to as __________.
Facilitated diffusion takes place in the plasma membrane with the help of
When chemical substances move from a region of low concentration to a region of high concentration, the movement is known as ________ __________.
Energy is required for these processes
________ ____________ is the passive transport of molecules across the membrane with the aid of transport proteins.
Oxygen molecules move form the body's air sacs into its red blood cells by the process of _______.
If a number of body cell were placed in a solution that was free of salt, the cell would tend to______.
If a number of body cell were placed in a solution containing the same concentration of salt as contained in the cytoplasm of the cell, the solution would be called_________.
The process of facilitated diffusion is assisted by ______ _________ present in the plasma membrane.
The processes of phagocytosis and pinocytosis are collectively known as _______.
To drive the process of active transport, energy is usually obtained from a substance called _____.
A cell membrane is made up of ________ __________.
A cell's contents would be the same as its surroundings if not for ...
The fluid mosiac modle describes a structure with ...
polar layers on the outside and nonpolar layers on the inside
These proteins monitor the oustside environment and send info. to the nucleus
This man concluded that all plants are composed of cells
Cells that lack internal membrane boune organelles
Provides rigidity and strength to the cell membrane
The man concluded that all animals are composed of cells
The ability to distinguish between two objects
Cell organelle located near the nucleus in animal cells and aides in cell reproduction
Membrane proteins that allow polar or large molecules in and out of the cell
Individuals molecules that make up the majority of the cell membrane are called
The sites of protein synthesis in the cell are called
Short, hairlike projection used for locomotion are called __________.
In a cell, the breakdown of molecules in order to release energy occurs in the _____________.
tangles of long strands of DNA
Thin, hollow cylinders of protein that function as one piece of the support structure of the cell ________.
Series of highly folded membranes that are the site of protein synthesis are called
This organelle contains digestive enzymes to break down worn out organelles or invading microorganisms
Each half of the X-like chromosome is called a
The phase of the cell cycle during which the cell divides to form two daughter cells is called ________.
The phase of interphase when the cell synthesizes a second copy of DNA
During prophase, chromatids attach to the spindle fibers at the region of DNA know as the ___________.
The stage of mitosis where chromosomes line up in the equatorial plane
Phase of mitosis marked by the nuclear envelope reapperaring and chromosomes uncoiling
All of the events that occur in this phase are the reverse of telophase
The _____________ of the cell cycle is the phase that immediately preceds mitosis
During the ________ of the cell cycle, DNA undergoes replication
______ is a period of nuclear division
The spindle fibers draw chromosomes to opposite poles of the cell during the stage of mitosis called ________.
Why is cell size limited?
- Volume increases faster than surface area
- Diffusion happens to slowly
Unlike plant cells, animal cells contain ____________.
In dividing a cell, the football shaped structure consisting of thin fibers is the ________.
The uncontrolled division of cells is known as _____.
The dark staining X-shaped structures that carry the genetic material are the ____________.
Somatic cells are _______, whereas gametes are __________.
Homologus chromosomes move to opposite poles
Telophase 1 results in the production of-
2 cells containing one homologue of each homologus pair
Meiosis: homologus pairs lining up at the equator
Things containing more that two sets of chromosomes
Gametes contain the ____ chromosome number.
The exchange of segments of homologus chromatids during meiotic prophase 1 is known as _________ _______.
Meiosis: In Interphase 1, the ________ is still present.
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