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  1. What form is more stable?
    the amorphous form is always more stable then the crystal form
  2. When a drug gets into solution what can it do?
    Enter the systemic circulation to exert a therapeutic effect
  3. What is the rate limiting step in dissolution?
  4. Dissolution
    • The rate or time to dissolve in fluids at the site of absorption
    • Absorption of drug into blood circulation
  5. What is the diffusion layer of dissolution?
    When a diffusion layer, stagnant layer is formed around the solid drug then mixed with the gastric juices to for the bulk of the solution then can get absorbed into the blood stream
  6. What is the Danckwert's model of dissolution?
    • Also called surface renewal theory
    • Accounts for packet that are present in the agitated fluid which reach the solid-lquid interface, absorb the solute by diffusion and carry it into the bulk of the solution
    • Continuously being replaced by new ones and exposed to new solid surface each time
  7. What is the partition coefficient ?
    this number indicates how readily a chemical can dissolve in fats and oils. If the octanol/water partition coefficient is high, e.g. for DDT it is about 6, then the chemical can accumulate more readily in body fat and can be stored there for a very long time, as it may be excreted very slowly
  8. T/F Unionized/Lipophillic drug molecules are more readily absorbed
  9. Where are weak acid and weak bases absorbed?
    They are going to absorbed at a pH of their pka. If it is enteric coated and they are acidic they will not be released until the intestines, there will be a small amount of unionized and can diffuse accross the membrane then reset the equilibrium and repeat the process to slowly release an acidic drug in an a basic environment
  10. What are four properties of excipients?
    • Alter drug absorption
    • Enhance solubility
    • Increase retention time of drug in the GIT
    • Act as carriers to increase diffusion across intestinal wall
  11. Diluent
    INcreases bulk
  12. Binder
    Makes the diluent adhere to the tablet to form a compact mass
  13. Disintegrant
    Swells up and disintegrates causing a release of active ingredients into solution
  14. Lubricants
    improve the flow properties, mainly during manufacturering
  15. Surfactant
    Decrease interfacial tension
  16. Organoleptic additives
    capable of being percieved by more than one sense organ
  17. Distribution
    the movement of drug between blood and tissues
  18. What are the factors that afect drug distribution?
    • Blood flow: rate of delivery to tissues
    • Capilary permeability: ability of drug to pass through capillaries
    • Binding of drugs to proteins and tissue components
    • Hepatic first past effect
    • Enterohepatic cycling
  19. Perfusion limited distribution
    • Perfusion is the process of nutritive delivery of arterial blood to a capillary bed
    • THe rate of blood flow to certain organs can limited distribution to the target organ
    • High Lipid solubility
    • Low water solubility
  20. Diffusion limited distribution
    • drugs with charges unable to diffuse across the membranes
    • Low lipid solubility
    • High water solubility
  21. What is a loading dose?
    It is a dose that binds to the plasma protein such that it allows for the actual dose to get to the target tissue
  22. Enterohepatic cycling
    Enterohepatic circulation refers to the circulation of biliary acids from the liver, where they are produced and secreted in the bile, to the small intestine, where it aids in digestion of fats and other substances, back to the liver.
  23. enterohepatic cycling of drugs
    • Enterohepatic circulation also means that some molecules which would not otherwise be very toxic can become extremely hepatotoxic as they reach unexpectedly high hepatic concentrations. Drugs may remain in the enterohepatic circulation for a prolonged period of time as a result of this recycling process.
    • When taken with food increases the circulation of drug and can stay in stomach longer
    • Fat solubile drugs stays into body longer than water soluble drugs
  24. T/F Urine is the only route of excretion
    • F
    • Can be secreted through sweat, milk, hair....
  25. Glomerular filtation
    • Allows drugs to pass into urine
    • Reduced by plasma protein binding
    • Only a portion of plasma is filtered
  26. Tubular secretion
    active carrier process for cations and anions
  27. What inhibits tubular secretions?
  28. Passive re-absorption
    Of lipid soluble drugs back into body across the tubule cells
  29. What is the first step in renal drug excretion?
    Glomular filtration
  30. Active tubular secretion
    some drugs that are weak acids or weak bases undergo active tubular secretion by transport systems located in the proximal tubular cells
  31. Passive reabsorption
    • Most substance can be reabsorbed if they are unionized and lipid soluble
    • Manipulation of urine pH makes drugs not to be reabsorbed in overdose situations
  32. What is the renal clearance?
    Excretion rate divided by plasma drug concentration in units of L/h
Card Set:
2012-01-12 22:38:27
Dissolution Solubility Excretion

Dissolution Solubility Excretion
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