chapter 4

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chapter 4
2012-01-19 15:59:46

ornamental and turf
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  1. What is the defintion of toxicity?
    toxicity is the capacity of a material to casue injury or poisoning to a living system, such as a human being, an animal, a lake, or a forest
  2. pesticides may enter the body in three different ways. Name them
    Through the skin (dermally) by ingestion (orally), or by breathing them (inhalation).
  3. Can some pesticides be as dangerous when they are absorbed through the skin as they are when they are taken orally?
    Yes, Some pesticides are just as dangerous when taken orally as they are when they contact the skin, Dermal exposure to pesticides can actually become oral exposure if there is not careful washing-up between pesticide work and eating and smoking
  4. ----(oil,paste, or water-based) pesticide solutions are most likely to be absorbed through the skin.
    oil or paste pesticide solutions are most likely to be absorbed through the skin.
  5. Some areas of the body surface absorb pesticides more quickly than other areas. Name three areas which absorb pesticides quickly
    The eyes, ears, scalp and groin tend to absorb pesticides more quickly than other areas.
  6. Which two routes of entry are likely to be the most important to the pesticide applicator
    The dermal and inhalation routes of entry are likely to be more important to the pesticide applicator than the oral route
  7. What important piece of equipment protects an applicator from inhaling pesticides?
    The appropriate respirator or self contained breathing apparatus.
  8. What precautions should be taken to avoid getting pesticides in the mouth by mistake
    Hands should be properly washed after applying pesticides, especially before eating or smoking. Pesticides should never be stored in any container that could be mistaken for a food or beverage container
  9. What is pesticide exposure?
    pesticide exposure is defined as coming in contact with the pesticide.
  10. Name and define the two types of pesticides
    Acute exposure refers to a one time contact with a pesticide. Chronic exposure refers to a repeated contact with a pesticide.
  11. The effects of which type of exposure-acute or chronic-can be more easily detected and studied?
    Acute effects can be more easily detected and studied than chronic effects.
  12. What is the definition of pesticide dose? Explain the difference between exposure and dose.
    The dose is the quantity of a substance that a surface, plan, or animal is exposed to. Exposure is coming in contact with the pesticide.
  13. Explain the difference between acute toxicity and chronic toxicity
    Acute toxicity refers to how poisonous a pesticide is to humans, animals, or plants, after a single exposure to the chemical. Chronic toxicity refers to the ability of a pesticide to do damage as a result of many repeated exposures, over a prolonged period of time
  14. Name three factors that affect the toxicity of a pesticide.
    There are many factors that affect the toxicity of a pesticide. They include: its route of entry; the frequency and duration of exposure; the dose recieved; toxic charactoristics inherent to the pesticide; ect
  15. What does LD50 mean? What about LC50? Explain who it is used
    LD50 means "Lethal Dose Fifty." It refers to the amount of a chemical that causes death in half, or 50%, of the exmerimental animals exposed to it by a particular route of exposure. The "Lethal Concentration Fifty," or LC50 of a pesticide is the amount of chemical in the air that causes half, or 50% of test animals to die when they inhale it.
  16. Do LD50s and LC50s give the exact toxicity of each pesticide?
    No, they simply tell us how much of the chemical it takes to kill half of the test animals.
  17. Acute oral toxicity and acute dermal toxicity are measured in LD50s. The higher the LD50 the_____(more of less) toxic the pesticide.
    The higher the LD50 the less toxic the pesticide
  18. How many parts per million (ppm) is 6 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg)?
    Six milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) is the same as 6 parts per million (ppm), since a milligram is one millionth of a kilogram
  19. Name and describe 6 different ways that pesticides can be toxic to humans.
    Pesticides can: cause deformities in unborn offspring ( teratogenic effects), cause cancer (carcinogenic effects), cause mutations (mutagenic effects), poison the nervous system (neurotixicity), or block the natural defenses of the immune system (immunotoxicity). Pesticides can aslo have: local or systemic effects; immediate or delayed effects; reversible or irreversible effects; singular, additive, or synergistic effects
  20. What type(s) of toxicity are label signal words and warning statements based on?
    Signal words and warning statements are based on pesticide's LD50 and other measures of its toxicity, including its oral, inhalation, or dermal toxicity, as well as other local effects.
  21. What signal word(s) are required on the label for pesticides classified as: Relatively non-toxic? Highly toxic? Slightly toxic? Moderately toxic?
    Pesticides that are categorized as relatively non-toxic must bear the signal word "CAUTION" on the labels. Those that are highly toxic must bear the signal words "DANGER" on their labels. Those that are considered slightly toxic must also state "CAUTION" on their labels. And those that are moderately toxic bear the label signal word "WARNING"
  22. Is there a difference between the toxicity and the hazard of a substance? if so, explain the difference
    While they can be similar, there is a difference between toxicity and hazard. The toxicity of a substance is its characteristic ability to cause injury to a living system. On the other hand, hazard is the chance, or "risk" that danger or harm will come from the use of a pesticide
  23. Is a highly toxic material always very hazardous?
    No. A highly toxic pesticide may be considered hazardous because of the risk that it poses to the public, wildlife, or the environment. However, with proper handeling, a highly toxic pesticide could actually pose a low risk or low hazard.
  24. What are some of the factors that determine the hazard of a chemical?
    Many factors besides a pesticide's actual toxicity can make it hazardous. These include: the skill of the applicator; the "target" involved; the type of pesticide; the qualities of the exposed individual; the formulation chosen; the other chemicals involved in the formulation; and te concentration and dosage used.