Biology 11 - Meiosis.txt
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Meiosis comes from the Greek word ____ which means ____.
____ comes from the Greek word "meioo" which means to lessen or reduce.
Sex cells are called ____.
Body cells are called ____.
- ____ are called gametes.
- ____ are called somatic cells.
Where does meiosis occur and what is its purpose?
It occurs in the reproductive organs (ovaries and testes) of sexually reproducing organisms. Its function is to form gametes for sexual reproduction.
Functions accompished by mitosis:
- - Asexual reproduction
- - Growth
- - Repair and replacement
Homologous chromosomes (also called homologs or homologues) are ____.
chromosome pairs of similar size and shape with genes for the same characteristics at corresponding loci. One is inherited from each of the organism's parents.
A pair of hobologous chromosomes.
Steps of meiosis:
- MEIOSIS I
- Prophase I
- - synapsis - homologs form tetrads and link.
- - crossing over occurs.
- Metaphase I
- - independent assortment as homologs line up along metaphase plate.
- Anaphase I
- - homologs separated.
- Telophase I
- - 2 haploid daughter cells.
- - each cell has 23 duplicated chromosomes.
- Meiosis II
- Propase II - brief.
- Metaphase II - chromosomes line up along metaphase plates.
- Anaphase II - sister chromatids separated.
- Telophase II - four haploid cells result.
A cell resulting from the union of male and female gametes. After it devides it is called an embryo.
The diploid number (2n) is ____.
The haploid number (n) is ____.
- Human chromosomes:
- ____ is 46.
- ____ is 23.
The process of forming an ovum (egg) by meiosis is called ____.
The process of forming a sperm by meiosis is called ____.
- ____ is called oogenesis.
- ____ is called spermatogenesis.
Each time the oocyte devides to create the ovum instead of creating two equal sized cells one is a small bodywith little cytoplasm called a ____.
The point where two chromatids in a duplicated chromosome are jointed.
Phases of interphase:
- G1 - First growth phase - Cell performs normal functions and doubles in size.
- S - Synthesis phase - DNA replicates.
- G2 - Second growth phase - Rapid growth as organelles double in number and cell prepares to devide.
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