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The study of mechanics of the human body
Those forces which cause movement
- The time, space an dmass aspects of a moving system
- Acceleration, decceleration,
What are the Two types of Motion?
- Linear (straight)
- Angular: movement of an object of segment around a fixed axis (spinning a wheel)
What are the 2 types of Linear Motion?
- Rectilinear: movement of an ovject or segment in a straight line (push book accross table)
- Curvilinear: combination of rotatory and translatory movement (wheel of a moving bicycle) translating accross a distance
At which joint does protraction/retraction occur?
At which joint(s) does supination/pronation occur?
Ankles (subtalar) & Forearms (humeroulnar)
At which joint does inversion/eversion occur?
Ankle (subtalar joint)
At which joint does dorsiflexion/plantarflexion occur?
Ankle (subtalar joint)
At which joint does horizontal adduction/abduction occur?
At which joint does radial/ulnar deviation occur?
Which joints function dominantly in the Transverse plane? (4)
- Glenohumeral Joint
- Cervical Spine
Which joints function dominantly in the Sagittal plane?
- Hand/Wrist-- Sagittal/Frontal
- Lumbar Spine
Which joints function dominantly in the Frontal plane?
- Thoracic Spine
In which plane do most people train?
- Sagittal Plane
- bicep curly trcep extension, leg extensions, leg curls, sit-ups, crunches, squats, push ups
In which plane does real life happen?
- Transverse Plane
- pushing, pulling, throwing, hitting, kicking, lifting, reaching
In which plane do most injuries occur?
- Transverse Plane
- rotator cuff tears, Achilles tendonitis, ACL tears, ankle sprains, herniated lumbar discs, ect.
What are the 2 components of Quantity of Motion?
- Angular Motion: clinically measured in degrees, with 360o being a full circle
- Magnitude of Motion: expressed in degrees per unit of time (angular speed)
What are the 3 parts of Angular Motion?
- Open-Packed Position: ligaments and capsule are inactive & joint surfaces apart, unstable position for joint movement, muscles surrounding the joint are active with active force & with passive force joint mobilization (accessory joint movement) may be performed
- Closed-Packed Position: ligaments & capsule are taut & joint surfaces are most congruent, stable position with minimal muscle contraction actively & passive accessory joint movement cannot be performed passively.
- O-Position: the starting position for measuring joint motion. It is deemed as 0o on a goniometer
How is the Magnitude of Motion used clinically & why is it ineffective?
- Used with isokinetic (same speed) equipment at 60, 120, 180, or 300 degrees per second.
- This is ineffective because real world joint movement occurs as speeds much quicker than this.
- Kicking a ball (knee velocity): 2400o/s
- Throwing a ball (elbow velocity): 1225o/s
- Jumping to spike a vollyball (knee velocity): 974o/s
- Throwing a baseball (shoulder IR velocity): 0-->1800o in 26ms
Isometric vs Isotonic vs Isokinetic
- Isometric: same position
- Isotonic: same weight (resistance)
- Isokinetic: same speed (velocity)
-what is it & what is the main example?
- Forces acting on the body which arise from outside sources (GRAVITY)
- Wind, water, other peole and other objects all produce external forces taht the human movement system will enounter
- Forces acting on the body from inside sources
- Muscles, ligaments, bone
- Friction, atomoshpheric pressure (w/in a joint)
Force Vectors are comprised of which 3 things?
- Point of Application (A)
- Action line and Direction (B)
- Magnitude (C)
Center of Gravity (COG)
-know the difference of location between symmetrical/asymmetrical objects & the human body)
- Hypothetical point at which gravity acts.
- Symmetrical Objects: geometric center
- Asymmetrical Objects: Toward the heavier end
- Human Body: Anterior to S2
Line of Gravity (LOG)
Line that is always oriented vertically downward toward the center of the earth, regardless of orientation of object/body in space.
Reaction of Forces (Law of Reaction)
- For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.
- Forces come in pairs.
- Gravity exerts a force on all objects, objects will exert a force back.
Equilibrium (Law of Inertia)
An object will remain at rest or in uniform motion unless acted on by an unblanced force.
Objects in Motion (Law of Acceleration)
-what is it & what is the formula?
- Acceleration is proportional to the unblanced forces acting on it & inversely proportional to the mass. That is, the lighter an object, the greater the acceleration. The greater the force applied to an object, the greater the acceleration.
You must ______________ load to ___________ unload.
ECCENTRICALLY load to CONCENTRICALLY unload
Which 3 things contribute to a stable system due to the position of the COG & LOG?
- A LOG that falls w/in the BOS
- A large BOS
- A COG that is close to the BOS
- The more unstable the system, the harder muscles and the proprioceptive system have to work to maintain stability
Name the exercises for Gravity Losers vs. Gravity Users for the quadriceps, abdominals & pectorals.
- Quadriceps: leg raises vs. SQUATS
- Abdominals: sit-ups/crunches vs. PUSH UPS
- Pectorals: bench press vs. PUNCH
What is happening if the knee buckles during walking?
There is a neurological shut off of the Quadricep
Electrolmyograph: test which uses a needle inserted into a muscle to digitally measure excitement of the muscle (contraction)
Concurrent Force Systems
Two or more forces acting at a common point but in divergent directions
Composition of Forces
The net effect of two divergent pulls is the line that lies between them
What are the 3 muscle action lines?
- Total Muscle Force Vector: Whenever a contraction occurs, a muscle will pull on all segments to which it is attached. Muscles create movement based on net forces aplied to a segment, not based on which is the distal end (insteriton).
- Divergent Muscle Pulls: The polygon method may be used to determine the resultant pull of two or more segments of one muscle (i.e. deltoid, pec major) or two muscles that share a common point of attachment
- Anatomic Pulleys: present throughout the body to change the direction of pull & increase the moment arm of force
What are the 2 rules that apply to anatomical PULLEYs?
- The point of application is located on the segment being moved, at the point of attachment of the muscle on the segment
- The direction of pull that the fibers or tendons create at the point of application is known as the ACTION LINE. Vectors are straight lines and do not change directions, regardless of any change in direction of muscle fiber or tendon.
What are the 3 types of parallel force systems?
- First Class Levers (FAR): A system of EQUILIBRIUM, few w/in the body, vital in lifting (triceps @ olecranon)
- Second Class Levers (ARF): A system of power (gastroc/soleus w/ axis at MTP joint)
- Third Class Levers (AFR): A system of efficiency of movement (biceps brachii @ elbow)
- Torque: the ability of any force to cause rotation of the lever T= f x d (d=perpendicular distance)
A contraction in which there is shortening, acceleration & force production is called...
A contraction in which there is lengthening, deceleration & force dissipation is called...
A stabilizing contraction would be called...
Name the muscle contractions during the cocking phase of a baseball throw
- Concentric--Shoulder External Rotators
- Eccentric--Shoulder Internal Rotators
- Eccentric--Ipsilateral Hip External Rotators
What are the muscle contractions during the acceleration phase of a baseball throw
- Concentric--Shoulder Internal Rotators
- Concentric--Ipsilateral Hip External Rotators
What are the contractions during the Follow-Through Phase of a baseball throw?
- Eccentric--Shoulder External Rotators
- Eccentric--Contralateral Hip External Rotators
What are the contractions during the Return to Starting Position following the baseball throw?
- Concentric--Shoulder External Rotators
- Concentric--Contralateral Hip External Rotators
Mechanical Advantage (MA)
- MA=EA/RA (effort arm/resistance arm)
- Application to levers
What does ABS stand for? & What is it?
Asymmetrical Butt Syndrome: When the gluteus maximus is not working on one side of the body
What are the 5 key facts about your body's amazing design?
- Symmetrical (10 step mirror test)
- 3 Planes of Motion
- Muscles only learn the Lessons we teach (make the right path the easy one to travel, forces take the path of least resistance)
- Pain is NOT inevitable (pain comes from asymmetry)
- At's almost always about the BUTT!
- Restores Body Symmetry
- Strengthens tendons & ligaments
- 9-12 exercises; 2-3 sets per session
- Rest interval; 2-4 minutes between circuits
Circuit training to strengthen tendons & ligaments (lower weight, many reps... as many repetitions as possible w/in a min)
- Increases muscle size
- 70-80% 1RM (6-12 reps)
- 6-9 exercises; 4-6 per session
- Rest interval: 1-3 minutes
- Yields highest increase in relative strength (3x greater than hypertrophy training)
- 85-100% 1 RM (1-4 reps)
- 3-5 exercises; 6-10 sets per session
- Rest interval: 3-6 minutes
Conversion to Power
- Combines speed & strength
- 30-50% 1 RM (1-4 repetitions)-cyclic
- 50-80% 1 RM (4-10 repetitions)-Acyclic
- 2-4 exercises per session; 3-6 sets per session
- Rest interval: 2-6 minutes
Muscular Endurance: Short duration
50-60% 1 RM (30-60 sec.) 3-6 sets
Muscular Endurance: Medium Duration
40-50% 1 RM (50-100 reps) 2-4 sets
Muscular Endurance: Long Duration
30-40% 1 RM (4-10 min) 2-4 sets
Name the Dermatome, Myotome & Reflex associated with C5
- Dermatome: Lateral Arm (axillary nerve)
- Myotome: Deltoid (shoulder flexion, ABDUCTION, & extension), biceps
- Reflex: Biceps Reflex (biceps tendon)
C6: Dermatome, Myotome & Reflex
- Dermatome: Lateral forearm, thumb, index & half of middle finger (sensory of musculocutaneous nerve)
- Myotome: Biceps, wrist extension
- Reflex: Brachioradialis Reflex (inch above styloid process of radius)
C7: Dermatome, Myotome & Reflex
- Dermatome: Middle Finger
- Myotome: Triceps, wrist flexors, finger extensors
- Reflex: Triceps tendon (inch above olecranon process)
C8: Dermatome, Myotome, Reflex
- Dermatome: Ring and little fingers, medial forearm (medial antebrachial-cutaneous nerve from posterior cord)
- Myotome: Interossei (finger flexion)
- Reflex: Pisiform Squeeze
T1: Dermatome & Myotome
- Dermatome: Medial Arm (medial brachial cutaneous nerve--from medial cord)
- Myotome: Interossei (finger abductors)