Bio - CHAP 1

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Bio - CHAP 1
2012-01-12 19:10:45

This chapter focuses on the chemical compenents that make up all matter.
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  1. Matter
    anything that takes up space and has mass
  2. Element
    A substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by chemical reactions
  3. Compound
    A substance consisting of two or more different elements combined in a fixed ratio

    A compound has characteristics different from those of its elements
  4. Essential Elements of Life
    Carbon (c), Oxygen (O), Hydrogen (H), Nitrogen (N) make up 96%.

    Phosphorus (P), Sulfur (S), Calcium (Ca), Potassium (K) and a few others make up the remaing 4%.
  5. Trace Elements
    those requried by an organism in only minute quantities
  6. Atom
    smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an element
  7. Subatomic Particles
    the even smaller parts of the atom which consists of the proton, electron and neutrons
  8. Neutrons
    electrically neutral subatomic particles
  9. Protons
    positively charged subatomic particles
  10. Electrons
    Negitively charged subatomic particle
  11. Atomic Nucleus
    dense core

    at the center of the atom

    protons give the nucleus a postive charge with negitively charged electrons form a cloud around it
  12. Dalton
    a unit of measurement used for atoms, subatomic particles, and molecules

    the dalton is the same as the atomic mass unit (amu)
  13. Atomic Number
    The number of protons in an atom

    which is unique to that element

    written as a subscript left of the symbol for the element ----->>(2He)

    this number tells us that the helium atom has 2 protons in the nucleus

    Unless indicated otherwise, atoms are neutral in electrical charge and therefore has the same number of electrons
  14. Mass Number
    Sum of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom

    written as superscript to the left ----->>(24He)

    you can determine the number of neutrons by subtracting the number of protons (atomic nubmer) from the mass number