what would cause a decrease in WBCs below the normal range?
leukopenia - can cause poor inflammatory response post op
what is thrombocytopenia?
not enough platelets
what are albumins?
proteins made by the liver and too big to leave the blood stream
what are protein-bound drugs?
binds to albumins and the rest are free floating. only free floating drug can get out of the blood stream. when some of the drugs leave, some of the drugs will unbind from albumin to become free floating to keep the equilbrium.
when are annual hematology screenings recommended?
geriatric patients over 7 years old
what are some problems that can effect the testing?
effects from diet (just ate)
keeping blood room temperature
anticoagulant (using the wrong one)
what color should plasma be?
what is hemolysis?
breaking of red blood cells and the plasma will look red
what causes hemolysis?
excess pressure drawing the blood
rough handling (shaking the sample)
injecting blood too fast into tube
moisture in syringe or tube
what is lipemia?
fat in the blood, causes the plasma to look white
what causes lipemia?
postprandial sample (getting sample after eating)
what is icterus?
plasma is yellow or brownish color
what causes icterus?
caused by bilirubin
breakdown product of RBCs - hemolytic anemia (RBC are breaking up in body and hemaglobin is changed to bilirubin in the liver), liver problems, cholestasis (blockage of bile)
what does RES stand for?
reticular endothelial system
what is RES?
macrophages that live in the liver and spleen and they check RBC to make sure they are okay
converts heme into bilirubin and will travel to a hepatocyte in the liver and will make bilirubin water soluble - changes to conjugated bilirubin which changes to bile
what happens to a blood test when an animal is excited?
increase in RBCs, WBCs, platelets, and glucose
what happens to a blood test when an animal just ate (post-prandial)?
increase in glucose and lipemia
which blood sample should never be frozen?
when should platelets be counted?
after 4-6 hours they are not reliable
can a normal lab result help you? why?
it will help rule-out as well as rule-in diseases
what are the steps to doing a manual CBC?
take anticoagulated blood
make a smear
run PCV and TP
perform WBC count (we will do this with a machine)
what does the nucleus of mononuclear cells look like?
round nucleus with no segments
what is another name for platelets?
what color stain do thrombocytes pick up?
where do you usually find parasites on a blood smear?
at the feathered edge because they are heavy
Name the 6 components of the CBC?
Why is a CBC a good idea prior to anesthesia?
to check for RBC, WBC, and platelet levels and to make sure the patient is well hydrated by testing the TP
Why is anemia dangerous to anesthestized patients?
because they're blood would not be able to carry enough oxygen throughout their body
What is polycythemia?
What is meant by "relative polycythemia"?
decrease in plasma which makes it look like there is a high PCV so it shows a false high PCV
What things besides physical exam can indicate a patient's dehydration
low plasma volume
What annual tests should be routinely performed in geriatric animals?
The number one cause of bloodwork errors is ____.
not letting it spin down for 10 minutes
Blood smears should be made within ___ minutes of the blood collection. Why?
after 30 minutes WBC start to distort, platelets clump together, and after 24 hours RBC lyse
What happens to RBC's stored in EDTA?
they lyse after 24 hours
Why should heparin not be used as an anticoagulant when making mammmalian blood smears?
it causes the WBC to distort and the platelets to clump together
What happens to platelts in a blood sample over time?
Describe in detail two methods of making a blood smear.
put the drop of blood on the etched/cloudy/white side, hold the other slide at 30 degrees, move the edge of the slide to the blood drop until the blood drop spreads 3/4th the width of the slide, then push forwards
make the two slide covers in a star then pull them apart
At what angle should you hold the spreader slide?
Describe where on the slide to read a blood smear
the monolayer, away from the feathered edge
What are causes of too thin of a smear?
too small of a drop
pushing the spreader slide too fast
angle of spreader slide is less than 30 degrees
What are causes of too thick of a smear?
too big of a drop
pushing the spreader slide too slow
angle of the spreader slide is more than 30 degrees
What happens if a blood smear dries too slowly?
it will cause crenation of the RBC
How should you dry a blood smear?
waving it in the air
How should smears be stored?
at room temperature and away from formalin
The gross pattern of a good smear should resemble a _____.
If you see a bunch of monocytes and segmented neutrophils at your feathered edge, what did you do wrong in preparation of the slide?
pushed too slow
What the heck is a smudge cell (aka skipocyte) and should you count them?
they are WBC's that have lost their cell membrane and their contents have spilled out everywhere. you don't count them
Where on the blood smear should the differential be performed?
at the monolayer
What is a supravital stain? Name one example
when the stain is added to the vial and is absorbed by the live cells. New methylene blue - Zynostain
What should you do if your eosin and methylene blue are getting low in your Diff-QUik stains? Why?
rinse out the containers really really well then fill them up with new stain
Define eosinophilic, basophilic, and neutrophilic
eosinophilic - red/pink
basophilic - blue/purple
neutrophilic - neutral (did not pick up any stain)
What do over-staining, under-staining, water artifact, stain precipitate, and crenation look like?
over-staining: dark, cytoplasm of the WBC's pick up color
under-staining: pale, hard to see
water artifact: refractile bubbles (shiny)
stain precipitate: stain on the slide that should not be there (can be confused with parasites)
crenation: distorted edges of RBC
What should you look at on a blood smear while using the 10x objective?
look at cell distribution
check feathered edge, edges of smear
find the monolayer
What should you look at on a blood smear when performing a differential?
Erythrocytes: size, shape, color, inclusions, extracellular things
Leukocytes: granulocytes and mononuclear cells
Platelets: estimate how many
Parasites: identify them
What is a PCV?
Packed Cell Volume: the ratio of erythrocytes to the total cell volume
What happens to the PCV if an animal is dehydrated?
bc there is less plasma so it makes it look like the RBC are rising
Anticoagulated blood should be placed in what color hematocrit tube?
Whole blood that does not contain an anticoagulant should be placed in what color hematocrit tube?
What is the buffy coat composed of and where is it found in the hematocrit tube?
platelets and WBCs
Explain how dehydration can mask anemia
because of the low plasma volume gives a false high PCV
Where are microfilaria concentrated in the hematocrit?
just above the buffy coat
How can you adjust your refractometer for its zero point?
using distilled water and set it to 1.0
What happens to total protein if an animal is dehydrated? Why?
List five causes of hypoalbuminemia
protein losing nephropathy
lose of lymph
chronic or severe blood lose
lack of hepatic production (albumin not being made)