Psych Final SA

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Psych Final SA
2012-01-23 16:13:27

possible questions for final
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  1. Five stages of Kuhbler Ross' Psychogical Stages of Dying
    • Denial
    • Anger
    • Baragining
    • Depression
    • Acceptanxce

    *Most don't make it to last stage, leave loose ends
  2. What is a hospice?
    • K-R wanted to help more people who were dying to reach acceptance, so she created hospice
    • Try to help person die w/comfort and dignity
    • Treat symptoms, not disease
    • Spiritual/religious services
    • Legal assistence
    • Financial Planning, funeral arrangements, counseling
  3. Nature v. Nurture
    • Nature is your genetics, nurture your env't
    • BF skinner was an American behaviorist who was partial to nurture; in the case of language, he said that postive reinforcement/vicarious learning helped children learn to adopt language
    • Noam Chomsky- Nature; biological psycholinguistic theory said language is to complex to just learning, LAD is active from appx 6 months through childhood so brain can decode, understand language
  4. What is classical conditioning?
    A simple form of learning based upon association of a stimulus and a response.
  5. Uses of classical conditioning
    • Train a dog w/electric fence
    • Breaking bad habits (bad-tasting nail polish)
    • Counterconditioning, desensetization
  6. Four levels of Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development
    • 1. Sensory Motor (Birth-2): gross motor skills; trial and error
    • 2. Preoperational Thought (2-7): language critical period
    • 3. Concrete Operations (7-11): logic, math, science, thinking rationally
    • 4. Formal Operation: abstract thought
  7. Cogntive Development Theory vocab
    • Animism- give life to toys
    • Object permeance- things exist even if you can't see him
    • Egocentrism- kids don't understand that other people hae points of view
    • Reversal- ability to undo/go back
    • Conservation- understanding properties of matter
    • Decentering- opp of egocentrism
  8. Kohlberg's stages of moral development
    • 1. Preconventional: do things based on reward/punishment
    • 2. Conventional: do what you do to fit in, avoid being censured (singled out), avoid guilt
    • 3. Postconvetional: do things base on your own ideas of right and wrong
  9. Erickson's Psychosocial stages
    • **Each has conflict and resulting personality trait
    • Trust v. Mistrust- infancy
    • Identity v. Role Confusion- teenager
    • Intimacy v. Isolation- young adult
    • Generousness v. self absorption- child bearing time
    • Integrity v. Despair- end of life
  10. Psychoactive drugs & 3 types
    • = substances that change your ability to process info by changing your level of awareness
    • Depressents- slows CNS; alcohol
    • Stimulates- excites CNS; caffeine
    • Opiates- painkillers; morphine, codeine
  11. Freud's Theory of the Mind and its parts
    Freud believed that you were controlled by your unconscious mind, so you are not really aware of why you do things= psychoanalysis

    • Conscious- everything you are aware of at a given moment
    • Preconcious- info you can recall at a moment's notice (facts, autobio, etc.)
    • Unconscious- repressed memories, hidden fears
  12. Freud's Theory of Dreams
    • Freud said dreams were the "royal road to the unconscious mind", so dreams helped recover repressed issues you may not even be aware of
    • Manifest content: facts of dream, what happened, as it appeared to you
    • Latent: interpret, symbolization
  13. What are standardized tests?
    • Tests that are given under strict standards, under identical circumstances
    • Aptitude- measure of future acheivment, ability to reason
    • Acheivment test- measure of retained info

    • Reliability- constant results
    • Validity- measures what it should measure
  14. BF Skinner and Operant Conditioning
    BF Skinner was an American behaviorist who believed that your personality was determined by what you do; wrote Walden 2, a book about a utopia where everything was good because people were constantly monitered then rewarded/punished

    Operant Conditioning: a simple form of learning based on punishment and reward

    Shaping (succesive approximation): as behavior improves, the reward improves
  15. What is punishment?
    • Punishment is something done after a behavior meant to discourage it
    • Effective punishment: proximity, intensity, consistency
    • Postive Punishment: give someone chores for breaking curfew
    • Negative Punishment: Take away cell phone for breaking curfew
    • Reward: increases the probability that behavior will be repeated
  16. Define psychology and its goals
    • Psychology: the study of behavior and cognition
    • Goals: Description, prediction, control, explanation
  17. subfields of psychology
    • School- administer & interpret placement tests
    • Educational- measures the effectiveness of tests, makes tests, textbooks, studies how people best learn
    • Industrial- HR; helps businesses foster better relationships w/workers
    • Developmental- studies changes in personality, behavior, cognition
    • Clinical- have a PhD; 80% of psychologists; help people work through tramatic issues
    • Therapist- do not have phD; work with less severe problems, like adjusting to a divorce, etc
  18. language definition
    The manipulation of symbols to convey meaning to others
  19. Scientific Method
    • 1. State the problem
    • 2. Develop a hypothesis
    • 3. Conduct research
    • 4. Interperet data
    • 5. Come to conclusions
    • 6. Communicate results
  20. Basic v. Applied research
    • Basic research is done as research for its own sake
    • Applied research is done to solve a problem
  21. 2 main groups in an experiment
    • Control- does not receive the independent variable
    • Placebo: inert substance in place of indpt variable; the placebo effect is up to 50%, shows the power of the mind
    • Experimental
  22. Rooting reflex
    The reflex of a baby to turn toward anything near its mouth to see if its a source of food
  23. Sucking reflex
    The reflex of a baby to try and nurse on anything that is put in its mouth
  24. Moro reflex
    • The protection reflex/startle reflex
    • If a baby hears a loud noise, it will cry, throw its arms out, and pull its feet in; this protects the vital organs
  25. Freud's psychosexual stages
    • **All are parts of body where you gain pleasure and thus cause changes in behavior
    • 1. oral (pacifier)
    • 2. Anal (potty-training)
    • 3. Phallic (do not understand it as sexual)
    • 4. latency (shy, hidden)
    • 4. Genital
  26. Readiness to learn
    Babies cannot learn certain things, like walking, until their body is ready to do so
  27. Prenatal v. Infancy
    • Prenatal: time before birth
    • Infancy: Birth-2
  28. Alzheimers
    • A degenerative brain disease that causes irreversable memory loss, ability to think, and may change behavior
    • Caused by a decaying of connections in the brain
    • Not curable- goal of medicine/treatment is to slow the progression of the disease
  29. Daydreaming
    • An altered state of conciousness where a person breifly escapes from reality to fantasy
    • Defense mechanism
  30. REM v non-REM sleep
    • Non-REM sleep is a deep, restful sleep; for the body
    • REM sleep is a "dream sleep", where the mind reorganizes itself
  31. dysomnias
    • disruptions in the quantity or quality of sleep
    • 2 types: insomnia, hypersomnia; both caused by stress
  32. Parasomnia
    Disruption in the quanity of quality of sleep due to an unusual or disturbing event

    • Somnobulism: sleepwalking
    • Enuresis: bed-wetting
    • Sleep terrors: typically in young children, causes great muscle movement, talking, reaction
    • Narcolepsy: falling asleep at a moment's notice; go right into REM; usually have lucid dreams about whats going on around you
  33. Continuos reinforcment
    • Every great deed gets an immediate reward
    • This decreases the effect of the reward
    • A more effective approach is partial (receiving reward on a schedule, like every week) and secondary (using a token, like gold stars or money, that can be turned in for a real reward)= token economy
  34. Stimulus generalization
    Confusing the conditioned stimulus with something else

    Ex: Little albert, who was scared by a white rat and then cried at the sight of Santa's beard
  35. Conditioned taste aversion
    When you get sick from eating a food, so then anything associated with that food makes you sick

    Form of predation control: taint the meat of livestock
  36. Latent learning
    We have knowledge but do not show it until we are properly motivated
  37. AIDS/HIV
    a disease that surfaced in the 1980s, breaks down immune system, spreads through bodily fluids
  38. Psychiatrist
    receives an MD rather than a PhD and can prescribe medicine
  39. Structured interview
    involves a set number of questions that every person is asked
  40. Physiological response
    Internal processes, like circulatory system and adrenaline, and how they change us during a psychological event
  41. Gender ID v. Sex roles
    • Gender ID: your own internal sense of being male or female
    • Sex roles: what society tells us men or women should do
  42. Identification
    When a baby adopts the values of one or two people, like mom or dad
  43. Contact Comfort
    Harlow- the idea that babies like being near their mothers becuase they are softer and more pleasent to be held by; when monkeys were given the choice of a soft monkey mother or a hard one that had food, they chose the soft one
  44. Insight
    The ability of a person to solve novel problems
  45. Fluid v Crystallized intelligence
    • Fluid- can think on your feet
    • Crystallized- Factual database; usually not affected by age
  46. ASC
    • Altered states of conciosuness
    • Sleeping, drug-induced, hypnosis, etc.
  47. EEG
    Record of brain wave activity
  48. SIDS
    • "Crib death"; when a baby dies in its sleep
    • May be caused by sleep apnea
  49. Psychopharmology
    The science of effects drugs have on our bodily system; medicine is basically the only therapy people receive
  50. FAS
    • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
    • Caused when a mother drinks during pregnancy; leads to retardation, set-apart eyes, etc.
  51. Hypnosis
    An altered state of conciousness that is characterized by a heightened state of suggestability
  52. Meditiation
    A form of practiced relaxatiuon

    Biofeedback: controling respiration, heart rate, etc.
  53. Learning
    The process leading to a realtively permenant change in one's behavior
  54. Forgetting
    The aparent loss of memory

    • Interfernce: something gets in the way of trying to remember
    • Decay/Erosion: forget due to disuse
    • Motivated Forgetting: forgetting things you don't want to remember
  55. Extinction
    When you dont' reward an animal/person and they stop showing the behavior you conditioned them to perform
  56. Stimulus Generalization
    For example, you get bit by a dog so now you are afraid of all dogs
  57. Metamemory
    The knowledge of one's own memory; ie knowing you have a good/bad memory, when you need to write something down, etc.
  58. 3 stages of the memory process
    • 1. Encoding- assigning meaningfulness
    • 2. Storage- must be stored correctly
    • 3. Retrieval
  59. Iconic memory
    Visual-sensory memory
  60. Echoic memory
    Auditory-sensory memory
  61. Sensory memory
    You experience thousands of stimuli in a day; this memory acts like a sieve, sorting what is important
  62. Meaningfulness
    If the information is important to you, you tend to remember it better
  63. Short-term memory
    • Working memory, primary memory
    • Where we hold info we are aware of at a particular moment
    • Can only hold 5-9 items at a time
  64. Chunking
    combine stimuli and put things into categories in order to remember it better
  65. Episodic
    Part of our long-term memory that is like a diary
  66. Semantic
    Part of our LTM like a dictionary
  67. Flashbulb memory
    A memory so vivid it is like it happened yesterday
  68. Serial Effect
    In memory, tend to remember things at the beginning and end of a list.
  69. Cognition
    All mental processes you are aware and unaware of
  70. Concept
    Mental images words create

    • Natural: made in nature
    • Formal: Made by humans
  71. Grammar
    All the rules that govern language
  72. Phonemes
    Most basic sound of language
  73. Morphemes
    1-2 syllable words

    Holophrastic speech: speak in just morphemes
  74. Telegraphic speech
    Speak in short, 2-4 word sentances
  75. Stages of Language Development
    • Crying
    • Cooing
    • Babble
    • Pattern Speech
  76. Language Relativity hypothesis
    • Language is influenced by culture and envt, but also reinforces stereotypes
    • Ex: Saying policeman- think only men can be in policeforce
    • Bejamin Lee Whorf
  77. Conciousness
    Processing information at various levels of awareness
  78. Attachment v. identification
    • With attachement, a baby just wants to be near someone, like mom
    • Identification is to want to be like someone; a baby first identifies only with itself, later with mom and dad, then peers, celebrities, etc, till it finds its own way
  79. Memory
    The storage of information for later retreival

    • Three stages:
    • 1. Encoding
    • 2. Storage
    • 3. Retrieval
  80. Maintainence Rehersal
    When you remember something by repeating it over and over
  81. Pnuemonic Device
    Using a little trick to remember something
  82. Elaborative rehersal
    Elaborative rehearsal is a memory technique that involves thinking about the meaning of the term to be remembered, as opposed to simply repeating the word to yourself over and over. For example, you need to remember the term "neuron." In order to permanently commit the term to your memory, you look up what it means (it is a nerve cell), find out its purpose (transmit information from or to the central nervous system), look at a diagram and study its parts, and think about how it relates to things that you already know (like how different it its from other kinds of cells, assuming you are familiar with other cells). If you do this several times (rehearsal), then you will be more likely to remember the term.
  83. Life-span approach
    • Take a person's entire life into account when talking about development
    • Erik Erikson
  84. Biological Approach
    • Complete understanding of genetics
    • Emphasis on brain, nervous system
  85. Humanistic Approach
    • Stresses that humans are unique and complex
    • Each person can reach his/her potential
    • Ex: Someone who doesn't have good grades, doesn't try, is missing something in life (no stable home, parents aren't invloved, etc)
    • Abraham Maslow
  86. Psychoanalytic Approach
    • Freud
    • Emphasizes the unconcious' motive for behavior
    • People are always fighting their sexual drive and need for destruction (Eros and Thanatos)- only society reigns us in
  87. Cognitive Approach
    • = Functionalism
    • Focuses on the mental processes
    • Fundamental flaw in these processes causes abnormalities
  88. Behavioral Approach
    • Focuses on what you do
    • BF Skinner
    • EX: young men whose fathers abused their mothers are more likely to be abusive
  89. Bobo experiment
    • Albert Bandura
    • Observational Learning- kids who watched video of kids being nice to bobo doll were nice to it, those who saw kids beating up bobo did the same
  90. Biological Constraints on learning
    • Instinctive Drift: something you cannot stop doing, like racoons and handling
    • Imprinting
    • Learning Disabiligties: does not mean a lower IQ; in fact, is usually something very specific, like dyslexia