Botany 1404: Tissues

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Author:
eeliz1
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127603
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Botany 1404: Tissues
Updated:
2012-01-27 20:33:23
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Botany plants
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Basics about tissues and plant bodies
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  1. Characteristics of Living Things
    • Organisation
    • Energy
    • Interaction with environment
    • Reproduction
    • Heredity
    • Evolution
  2. Types of Tissue System
    • Ground T.S.
    • -parenchyma
    • -sclerenchyma
    • -collenchyma

    • Vascular
    • -xylem
    • -phloem

    • Dermal T.S.
    • -epidermis
    • -periderm
  3. Plant Cell
    • -cell wall rich in cellulose
    • -chloroplasts
    • -vacuoles that digest waste
    • -plasmodesmata connect adjacent cells
  4. Parenchyma Cells
    • -thin cell walls
    • -large vacuole
    • -irregular shape
    • -can have chloroplast
    • -can store materials
    • -Alive at maturity
    • -Capable of cell division
  5. Parenchyma Tissue
    • Occurs in:
    • -cortex & pith of stem
    • - leaf mesophyll
    • - fruits/flowers
    • - vascular tissue system

    • Functions:
    • -photosynthesis
    • -storage
    • -secretion
    • -wound healing
    • -has a role in water & sugar mvt.
  6. Sclerenchyma Cells
    • -Generally dead at maturity
    • -Cell wall
    • -very thick
    • -secondary cell wall thickened with ligin and cellulose
    • -Types of sclerenchyma cells
    • -fibers
    • -sclereids
  7. Sclerenchyma Tissue
    • Occurs:
    • -vascular tissue
    • -areas where support is need

    • Function:
    • -support
    • -strength
  8. Collenchyma Cells
    • -Alive at maturity
    • -Cell walls
    • -unevenly thickened
    • -stretch and elongate
    • -Elongate, prism shape
  9. Collenchyma Tissue
    • Occurs in:
    • -young, growing organs
    • -below stem epidermis
    • -stalk of leaf

    • Function:
    • -support without rigidity
  10. Water Conducting Cells of the Xylem
    • -2 types: tracheids and vessel elements
    • -elongate cells
    • -cell walls have puts and lignin
    • -cells are dead when functioned
    • -A pit is an area missing a secondary cell wall; allows for water transfer across cells.
  11. Tracheids
    • -lack perforations
    • -"safer" method of water transport
  12. Vessel Elements
    • -have pits
    • -have perforations in cell wall
    • -more efficient conductions of water than tracheids.
    • -found in angiosperms.
  13. Other Cells of the Xylem
    • -parenchyma cells for storage
    • -fibers for support and storage
  14. Phoelm
    • Comprised primarily of sieve-tube elements, which conduct nutrients through the plant.
    • Contains sclerids for support
    • Contains fibers for support
    • Contains parenchyma cells for storage
  15. Sieve-tube Elements
    • found in angiosperms
    • elongate cells
    • alive at maturity
    • contain sieve plates
    • has a companion cell; the companion cell has a nucleus whereas the sieve-tube elements don't. It directs the sieve-tube's metabolism.
    • Contains a proteinaceous substance called P-protein
  16. Dermal Tissue
    Comprised of the epidermis and the periderm (in woody plants).
  17. Epidermis
    • comprised of guard cells, stomata, trichomes, root hairs, specilized cells, and unspecialized cells.
    • A waxy cuticle prevents water loss
    • typically lacks choloroplasts
  18. Stomata
    • plural of stoma or stomate
    • an opening in the leaf controlled by guard cells
    • as the guard cells fill with water, it opens.
    • the guard cells regulate gas exchange
    • generally found on leaves
  19. Trichomes
    • Generally found on stems and leaves
    • One purpose is for defense; the trichomes could be toxic, contain silica crystals that cut, etc.
    • Increases surface area
    • Helps prevent water loss; hairs cover stomata
    • Can help keep the plant cool
  20. Root Hairs
    Small extensions of the epidermis that increase the surface area of the roots
  21. Periderm
    • replaces epidermis in stems/roots with secondary growth in woody plants
  22. 3 Steps of Plant Growth
    • cell division
    • cell elongation
    • cell differentiation
  23. What is a Meristem?
    • meristematic tissues = clumps of cells with dense cytoplasm and proportionately large nuclei
    • areas of active cell division
    • Responsible for both primary and secondary growth.
  24. Apical Meristems
    • primary growth
    • located at tips of all roots and stems
    • indeterminate growth
    • two types: root apical meristem and shoot apical meristems
    • *
  25. Primary Meristems
    • responsible for primary growth
    • come from apical meristems
    • partly differentiated tissues that remain meristematic (in other words, can still go through mitosis)
    • initiated during embryonic development
  26. Lateral Meristems
    • results in secondary growth
    • Two types:
    • vascular cambium --> Secondary xylem and phloem
    • cork cambium --> periderm

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