Lower extremity muscle cards

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bbeckers88
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127634
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Lower extremity muscle cards
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2012-01-13 16:16:45
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biomech muscle cards
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origins, insertions, actions, innervations of hip, knee, ankle, and foot muscles
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  1. what is the other name for the peroneus brevis
    fibularis brevis
  2. Origin of the peroneus brevis
    distal 2/3 of the lateral shaft of the fibula and adjacent intermuscular septum
  3. insertion of peroneus brevis
    the tendon passes posterior to the lateral malleolus then along the lateral foot to the lateral aspect of the tuberosity at the base of the 5th metatarsal
  4. action of the peroneus brevis
    • foot eversion
    • assists in plantar flexion
  5. kinesiologic function of peroneus brevis
    • stabilizes ankle
    • resists inversion
    • conterbalances tib anterior
    • protects from ankle sprains
    • suspends the lateral arch
  6. other name for peroneus longus
    fibularis longus
  7. origin of peroneus longus
    head and proximal 2/3 of the lateral shaft of the fibula; it often also arises from the lateral tibial condyle and tib/fib capsule
  8. insertion of peroneus longus
    medial aspect of the plantar surfaces of the 1st metatarsal and 1st cuneiform; before reaching the insertion the tendon passes posterior to the lateral malleolus wehre it is best visualized, turns anteroinferior to cross the lateral side of the calcaneus where it turns again to pass inferior to the cuboid and obliquely medial through the deep tissues of the foot; not that its tendon is held in place in the lateral ankle and foot by the superior and inferior peroneal retinaculae
  9. action of peroneus longus
    • plantar flexion at the ankle
    • eversion of the foot
  10. kinesiological function of peroneus longus
    • stabilizes ankle
    • resists inversion
    • counterbalances tib anterior
    • supports lateral, longitudinal, and transverse arches of the foot
  11. other name for peroneus tertius
    fibularis tertius
  12. origin of peroneus tertius
    distal 1/3 of the anterior surface of the fibula and adjacent interosseous membrane
  13. insertion of peroneus tertius
    dorsl surface of the base or shaft of the 5th metatarsal; note that its tendon emerges below the inferior extensor retinaculum just lateral to the extensor digitorum tendons and diverts laterally on the dorsolateral aspect of the foot; note that the tendon is sometimes absent
  14. action of peroneus tertius
    • assist with dorsiflexion at the ankle
    • eversion of the foot
  15. kinesiologic function of peroneus tertius
    • no primary functions
    • aids in suspendig the lateral longitudinal arch
  16. origin tibialis anterior
    lateral condyle and anterolateral aspect of the proximal 2/3 of the shaft of the tibia; and also adjacent interosseous membrane
  17. insertion of tibialis anterior
    medial surface of the first cuneiform and adjacent first metatarsal base; the tendon passes deep to the extensor retinaculae and is prominent along the anteromedial ankle
  18. action of tibialis anterior
    • dorsiflexes at the ankle
    • inverts the foot
  19. kinesiologic function of tibialis anterior
    • supports the medial longitudinal arch as a suspensor
    • controlling pronation of the foot (especially during the stance phase of running)
    • accelerates the body while running by pulling the leg anterior over the fixed leg
    • dorsiflexion to prevent foot drop
    • if fatigued leads to shin splints
  20. origin of extensor digitorum longus
    lateral tibial condyle, proximal tibiofibular joint capsule, proximal 2/3 of anteromedial fibular shaft, and adjacent interosseous membrane
  21. insertion of extensor digitorm longus
    it crosses deep to the superior and inferior extensor retinaculae and divides into 4 tendons. each tendon forms an extensor hood on the dorsum of each toe which in turn inserts on the middle and distal phalanges of toes 2-5; tendons of the extensor digitorum brevis join these tendons of toes 2-4
  22. action of extensor digitorum longus
    • extens joints of toes 2-5
    • assists ankle dorsiflexion
    • assist eversion of the foot
  23. kinesiologic function so the extensor digitorum longus
    maintains toe extension during the swing phase of gate and assists in dorsiflexion to prevent toe drag
  24. origin of extensor hallucis longus
    middle part of the anterior aspect of the shaft of the fibula and adjacent interosssous membrane; not that the muscle belly is deep to the tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum muscles and its tendon emerges in the distal leg where it becomes visible and palpable on the anterior ankle and dorsum of the foot; the muscle belly is not readily palpable
  25. insertion of extensor hallucis longus
    distal phalanx of the hallux
  26. action of extensor hallucis longus
    • dorsiflexes (extends) the big toe
    • assists in dorsiflexion of the ankle
  27. kinesiologic function of extensor hallucis longus
    sensitive L5 radiculopathy indicator
  28. origin of flexor digitorum longus
    as a member of the deep posterior compartment it arises from themiddle 1/3 of the medial surface of the shaft of the tibia; it is bestpalpated just posterior to the medial crest of the tibia in themiddle 1/3 of the calf
  29. insertion of the flexor digitorum longus
    after crossing posterior to the medial malleolus and through the tarsal tunnel in a separate synovial sheath as the middle member of "Tom, Dick, and Harry" it is joined by the quadratus plantae and divides into 4 tendons deep in the sole of the foot to insert on the plantar surfaces of the distal phalanges of toes 2-5; note that each tendon passes through the split tendon of the flexor digitorum brevis
  30. action of the flexor digitorum longus
    • flexes toes 2-5
    • assists plantar flexion
  31. kinesiologic function of flexor digitorum longus
    • controls extension of the lateral 4 toes during take-off
    • bow-string to support the longitudinal arches
  32. origin of flexor hallucis longus
    as a member of the deep posterior compartment of the leg it arises from the distal 2/3 of the posterior aspect of the shaft of the fibula and interosseous membrane
  33. insertion of flexor hallucis longus
    after crossing posterior to the medial malleolus deep in the tarsal tunnel then inferior to the sustentaculum tali and head of the talus in a separate synovial sheath it crosses deep in the sole of the foot to insert into the plantar surface of the distal phalanx of the hallux; because of its deep position in the leg, ankle, and foot it is not readily palpated
  34. action of flexor hallucis longus
    • flexes hallux
    • assists ankle plantar flexion
    • assists inversion
  35. kinesiologic function of flexor hallucis longus
    • controls hallux extension during take off
    • controls the foot as it leaves the ground
    • supports the longitudinal arches
  36. origin of tibialis posterior
    as a member of the deep posterior compartment of the leg it arises from the posterior sides of the proximal lateral shaft of the tibia, the proximal medial shaft of the fibula, and the intervening interosseous membrane
  37. insertion of the tibialis posterior
    it has 8 insertions; primarily on the navicular and 1st cuneiform tubercles with tendinous expqansions to the 2nd and 3rd cuneiforms, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th metatarsal bases, and cuboid; the tendon is visible and palpable along the posterior aspect of the medial malleolus and appears to terminate on the navicular tubercle
  38. action of tibialis posterior
    • inversion and adduction of the foot
    • assists plantar flexion of the ankle
  39. kinesiologic function of tibialis posterior
    • the key dynamic supporter of the medial longitudinal arch
    • important for weight bearing during take-off
    • locks the subtalar joint as the heel rises during take-off
    • controls pronation at the end of take-off
  40. origin of gastrocnemius
    both heads arise from the posterior aspect of the femur; the medial head originates from the superior surface of the medial condyle; the lateral head from the superior surface of the lateral condyle
  41. insertion of the gastrocnemius
    unites with the soleus to form the tendo-calcaneus (Achilles) to insert on the tuberosity on the posterior aspect of the calcaneus; note that the superior part of the posterior aspect of the calcaneus is separated from the tendon by the retrocalcaneal bursa
  42. action of the gastrocnemius
    • plantar flexors of the ankle
    • assists in flexing the knee
    • assist during terminal extension of the knee in a closed kinetic chain
  43. kinesiologic functions of the gastrocnemius
    • plantar flexion
    • slows the forward movement of the leg during midstance
    • lifts the heel to initiate take-off
  44. origin of the soleus
    deep to the gastroc, yet still part of the superficial posterior compartment, it originates from the posterior surface of the head, neck and proximal 1/3 of the shaft of the fibula; and from the posteromedial aspect of the shaft along the popliteal/soleal line and posterior to the proximal end of the medial crest of the tibia
  45. insertion of the soleus
    it unites with the gastroc to form the calcaneal tendon to insert on the middle part of the calcaneal tuberosity; cometimes the term "gastrocsoleus" is used in reference of both muscles
  46. action of the soleus
    plantar flexion of the foot
  47. kinesiologic function of the soleus
    • plantar flexion of the foot
    • eccentrically lowers the heel during the contact phase
    • concentrically lifts the heel to initiate take-off
    • does not cross the knee joint
  48. origin of popliteus
    the most proximal member of the deep posterior compartment of the knee, it arises from the lateral aspect of the lateral femoral condyle, adjacent arcuate ligament and posterior capsule; the popliteofibular ligament forms along its anterolateral margin
  49. insertion of popliteus
    it courses obliquely inferomedially to insert on the posterior aspect of the proximal tibia above the popliteal/soleal line; it also attaches to the lateral meniscus as it crosses lateral to medial
  50. action of popliteus
    • knee stabilizer
    • internally rotates tibia in open kinetic chain
    • externally rotates femur when in a closed kinetic chain
    • assist knee flexion
  51. kinesiologic function of popliteus
    • unlocks the externally rotated tibia when flexion is initiated from a fully extended position
    • it may be the most important stabilizer of the lateral side of the knee
    • it is important to stabilize the knee at extremes of external tibial rotation through its action and by tensing the important popliteofibular ligament
    • it stabilizes the tibia when squatting by limiting anterior femoral slide and internal tibial rotation
    • it may also help posterior translation of the lateral meniscus during flexion and external rotation protecting it from being crused during these actions
    • assists the quads in resisting posterior translation of the tibia
  52. origin of semitendinosus
    ischial tuberosity; its tendon shares a common origin with tendons of the semimembranosus and biceps femoris long head
  53. insertion of semitendinosus
    proximal medial surface of the shaft of the tibia just inferior to the medial condyle as a posterior portion of the pes anserinus (with sartorius and gracilis)
  54. action of semitendinosus
    • primarily knee flexion
    • when the knee is flexed it internally rotates the tibia
    • assists with extension and internal rotation at the hip
  55. kinesiologic function of semitendinosus
    • deceleration of the limb at the end of the forward swimg during the gait cycle and when kicking
    • stretched and culnerable to injury at the end of forward swing during ballistic activities
    • stabilization across the knee resisting anterior tibial translation protecting the ACL
    • resists external tibial rotation
    • assists the quads in the last stages of extension in a closed kinetic chain
  56. origin of semimembranosus
    ischial tuberosity along with the semitendinosus and long head of the biceps femoris
  57. insertion of semimembranosus
    posterior aspect of the medial tibial condyle; also it has significant attachement to the posterior knee joint capsule and its tendon is the anchoring point of the inferomedial end of the oblique popliteal ligament; it also appears to have attachements to the posterior horn of the medial meniscus
  58. action of semimembranosus
    • primarily knee flexion
    • when the knee is flexed it internally rotates the tibia
    • also assists extension and internal roatation at the hip
  59. kinesiologic function of semimembranosus
    • supplements the ACL by resisting anterior tibial translation
    • assists in posterior translation of the medial meniscus during flexion
  60. origin of biceps femoris
    • long head: originates from the ischial tuberosity as part of the common tendon with the semitendinosus and membranosus
    • short head: originates from the lateral lip of the distal 1/2 of the linea aspera and lateral supracondylar line of the femur and from the lateral intermuscular septum
  61. insertion of biceps femoris
    primarily the superolateral aspect of the fibular head with slips to the lateral tibial condyle and fibular collateral ligament
  62. action of biceps femoris
    • flexion at the knee
    • when the knee is flexed it externally rotates the leg
    • the long head also assists extension and external rotation of the hip
  63. kinesiologic functions of biceps femoris
    • THE MOST INJURED HAMSTRING (most vulnerable to injury at the end of swing phase)
    • decelerates the forward swinging limb
    • supplements the ACL by resisting anterior tibial translation
    • assists the quads by paradoxically extending the tibia at terminal extension
  64. origin of sartorius
    ASIS and adjacent notch
  65. insertion of sartorius
    it passes obliquely inferomedially across the thigh and posterior to the medial femoral condyle. it contribules the anterior portion of the pes anserine tendon along with the gracilis and semitendinosus; it inserts on the medial aspect of the proximal end of the shaft of the tibia just below the medial tibial condyle
  66. action of sartorius
    • flexes and internally rotates at the knee
    • flexes, abducts and externally rotates at the hip
  67. kinesiologic function of sartorius
    forms a force couple with the gracilis and semitendinosus at the knee; if it were able to act alone it would position the lower limb in a figure 4. forms the anterior roof of the adductor canal; may assist ACL by resisting anterior tibial slide
  68. origin of rectus femoris
    • straight tendon: arises from the AIIS
    • reflected tendon: originates just superior to the brim of the acetabulum and adjacent hip joint capsule
  69. insertion of rectus femoris
    it forms the anterior middle part of the quadriceps tendon attaching to the superior pole of the patella and ultimately inserts on the tibial tuberosity by way of the infrapatellar tendon
  70. action of rectus femoris
    • it extends at the knee
    • flexes the hip
    • flexes the trunk at the hip
  71. kinesiologic function of rectus femoris
    one of the prime moves that flex at the hip, especially above 70o; the proximal muscle tendon junction of the rectus is themost commonly strained region of the quads and is especially vulnerable to injury at the end of posterior swing when running
  72. origin of vastus intermedius
    arises deep to the rectus femoris from the anterolateral surface of the proximal 2/3 of the shaft of the femur and the distal part of the lateral intermuscular septum
  73. insertion of vastus intermedius
    it forms the deep part of the quads tendon attaching to the superior and lateral borders of the patella and ultimately inserts via the infrapatellar tendon to the tibial tuberosity and then by the lateral retinaculum to the lateral tibial condyle; the deep layer of this muscle referred to as the articularis genu inserts on the suprapatellar pouch/bursa
  74. action of vastus intermedius
    extends the leg at the knee joint
  75. kinesiologic functions of vastus intermedius
    its contribution to the lateral retinaculum effects the positio of the patella; the articularis genu pulls the suprapatellar bursa proximally presumably to protect its synovial lining from being pinched by the patella during extension at the knee
  76. origin of vastus medialis
    arises from the medial part of the intertrochanteric line, pectineal line, medial lip of linea aspera, and medial supracondylar line of the femur; it also originates from the inserting tendons of the adductors near the linea aspera and the medial intermuscular septum
  77. insertion of vastus medialis
    it forms the medial portion of the quads tendon attaching to the superior and medial sides of teh patella and ultimately inserts on the tibial tuberosity by the infrapatellar tendon and the medial tibial condyle via the medial retinaculum
  78. action of vastus medialis
    extends the leg at the knee joint
  79. kinesiologic function of vastus medialis
    • resists lateral translation and tilting of the patella
    • counterbalances the Q angle
    • counterbalances the lateral pull from other quads and IT band
    • inhibited by hamstrings, v. lateralis, and IT band tightness
    • lower 1/3 of the muscle is called the vastus medialis oblique and is important to patellofemoral function and must contract faster than the its larger lateral counterpart
  80. origin of vastus lateralis
    arises from the intertrochanteric line and distal part of the posterior aspect of the greater trochanter, lateral part of the gluteal tuberosity, proximal 1/2 of the lateral lip of the linea aspera, iliotibial band, and lateral intermuscular septum
  81. insertion of vastus lateralis
    it forms the lateral part of the quads tendon attaching to the superior and lateral margins of the patella and ultimately inserts on the tibial tuberosity via the infrapatellar tendon and lateral condyle of the tibia by the lateral retinaculum
  82. action of vastus lateralis
    extends the leg at the knee joint
  83. kinesiologic function of vastus lateralis
    • this is the largest part of the quads; if tight, stronger than the medial side or when it contracts faster than the medial oblique it contribules to lateral patellar tracking dysfunction and patellofemoral pain syndrome
    • the lateral retinaculum contribules to patellofemoral and lateral tibiofemoral stability or instability
  84. origin of iliacus
    superior 2/3 of iliac fossa, inner lip of the iliac crest, anterolateral sacroiliac base, and adjacent iliolumbar and sacroiliac ligaments
  85. insertion of iliacus
    it forms the lateral part of the iliopsoas in the thigh and inserts on the inferior part of the lesser trochanter and adjacent bone just inferior to the lesser trochanter; a large iliopsoas bursa separates the common tendon of the iliopsoas from the pubis and capsule
  86. action of iliacus
    • flexion and external rotation of the thigh at the hip
    • flexes and laterally flexes the trunk at the hip
  87. kinesiologic function of iliacus
    • an imbalance favoring the iliopsoas over the other hip flexors and internal rotators may result in increased foot flare
    • primary hip flexor
    • influcences pelvic tilt and can contribute to lordosis and scoliosis of the lower spine
  88. origin of psoas major
    anterior and lateral surfaces of T12-L5 vertebral bodies and intervening IVDs; it also arises from the inferior surfaces of L1-L5 tps
  89. insertion of psoas major
    it forms the medial protion of the iliopsoas in the femoral triangle and inserts by a common tendon on the lesser trochanter; note that the distal end of the iliopsoas and its tendon is separated from the pubis and hip joint capsule by the large subtendinous iliopsoas bursa; sometimes a second head is present that inserts on the superior pubic ramus (psoas minor)
  90. action of psoas major
    • a strong hip flexor
    • assists as an external hip rotator
    • flexes, lateral flexes and stabilizes the spine and pelvis at the hip
  91. kinesiologic functions of psoas major
    • asymmetry in length, strength, or flexibility may be associated with scoliosis
    • bilateral tightness may contribute to lumbar lordosis
    • powerful hip flexor
    • important in postural muscle support for the spine
    • resists posterior and side sway of the trunk
    • when supine with legs fixed the iliopsoas is important in flexing the trunk
  92. origin of pectineus
    pectineal line and adjacent bone of the pubis
  93. insertion of the pectineus
    pectineal line on the posterior proximal aspect of the femur that runs between the base of the lesser trochanter to the linea aspera
  94. action of pectineus
    • side to side trunk stabilization
    • assists flexion and adduction at the hip
    • assists stbilization of the pelvis along with the adductor muscles
  95. kinesiologic functions of the pectineus
    arises embryonically from the anterior compartment of the thigh with the hip flexors
  96. origin of TFL
    ASIS and anterolateral part of the iliac crest
  97. insertion of TFL
    sanwiched between two layers of the iliotibial tract which in turn inserts on the linea aspera by way of the lateral intermuscular septum and to Gerdy's tubercle and surrounding bone of the lateral tibial condyle; it also has a small anterior tendinous expansion that attaches tot he superolateral border of the patella
  98. action of TFL
    • abduction, flexion, and internal rotation at the hip
    • assists lateral flexion of the trunk at the hip
    • assists both flexion of the flexed knee and terminal extension of the knee
  99. kinesiologic function of TFL
    • supports the trunk during ambulation by resisting contralateral side bending during single limb stance
    • support the lateral knee
    • contributes to the position of the patella
    • by controlling side sway during ambulation it reduces knee, hip, and low back wear and tear
  100. origin of glut min
    external/gluteal surface of the ilium between anterior and inferior gluteal lines and along the margin of the greater sciatic notch
  101. insertion of glut min
    anterolateral surface of the greater trochanter; its tendon is separated from the greater trochanter by one of the 3 trochanteric bursae
  102. action of glut min
    • primarily hip abduction and ipsilateral flexion of the trunk
    • assists flexion and internal rotation at the hip
  103. kinesiologic function of glut min
    • important trunk stabilizer that resists contralateral bending when standing or during single limb stance when ambulating
    • when weak it may result in a positive trandelenburg sign
  104. origin of glut med
    originates from the external/gluteal surface of the ilium between the iliac crest and the anterior gluteal line
  105. insertion of glut med
    lateral to the apex of the greater trochanter of the femur; its tendon is separated from the greater trochanter by one of the 3 trochanteric bursae
  106. action of glut med
    • abduct the thigh and laterally flex the trunk at the hip
    • assists external and internal rotation and flexion and extension at the hip
  107. kinesiologic function of glut med
    • most important lateral stabilizer at the hip
    • supports the trunk when weight bearing on the single ipsilateral limb
    • when paralyzed it results in an abnormal gain (glut med lurch) involving increased side sway towards the side of paralysis
    • when weak the loss of lateral stability of the trunk, hip, and knee may lead to increased risk of acute traumatic and repetitive stress injuries to those regions
  108. origin of glut max
    arises from a vast origin from the external surface of the ilium between the posterior part of the iliac crest and the posterior gluteal line, from bone on both sides of the SI joint, posterior SI joint capsule, dorsolateral surfaces of sacrum and coccyx, sacrotuberous lig, adjacent gluteal aponeurosis, and inferior lumbodorsal fascia
  109. insertion of glut max
    the posterior ITB, gluteal tuberosity, and greater torchanter; it inserts on the linea aspera and lateral condyle of the tibia via the ITB and lateral intermuscular septum
  110. action of glut max
    • extensor at the hip
    • extends the trunk on the hip
    • contributes to hip abduction and external rotation
    • its inferior fibers also assist in adduction at the hip
  111. kinesiologic function
    it is the largest muscle of the body and becomes increasingly active as the speed of gain increases when ascending or descending an incline; it is a hip extensor during initial swing and eccentrically decelerates the forward swinging limb during running and kicking; it is very important to the support of the pelvis and spine eccentrically and concentrically be tensing the LDF; it supports the knee by maintaining tension of the ITB with TFL
  112. origin of piriformis
    anterior and lateral surfaces of the sacrum between the 1st and 4th sacral foramina, gluteal surface of the ilium adjacent to the PSIS, anterior sacroiliac capsule and anterior surface of the sacrotuberous lig
  113. insertion of piriformis
    after passing through the greater sciatic foramen and deep to the gluteus maximus it inserts on the superior aspect of the greater trochanter of the femur
  114. action of piriformis
    when the hip is neutral to extended it is an external rotator at the hip; when the hip is flexed it is a hip abductor
  115. kinesilogic function of piriformis
    • intimate physical relationship to the sacral plexus on its anterior surface and the gluteal, sciatic, and posterior femoral cutaneous nerves that emerge along its superior or inferior boarders as the enter the gluteal region and posterior thigh
    • piriformis syndrome= deep gluteal or posterior thigh pain, tenderness, and sciatica from piriformis problems
  116. what is another name for gracilis
    adductor gracillis
  117. origin of gracilis
    inferior surface of the body of the pubis; anterior part on inferior pubic ramus, and adjacent pubic symphysis
  118. insertion of gracilis
    forms the middle part of the pes anserinus between the semitendinosus and sartorius to insert on the proximal medial surface of the shaft of the tibia just distal to the medial tibial condyle; deep to the pes anserinus is thepes anserine bursa; note this is the only adductor to cross the knee
  119. action of gracilis
    • assists adduction and flexion at the hip
    • flexion and internal rotation at the knee
  120. kinesologic function of gracilis
    along with the 2 other pes anserine muscles it contributes to medial knee stability by resisting internal rotation of the tibia; it also functions along with the hamstrings as a knee flexor at the knee; it may also assist the ACL in resisting anterior tibial translation
  121. origin of adductor longus
    arises from anterior surface of the pubis at the junction of the crest and the body
  122. insertion of adductor longus
    the middle 1/3 of the linea aspera on the posterior aspect of the shaft of the femur
  123. action of adductor longus
    • adducts at the hip and also medially rotates if the femur is already medially rotated relative to neutral
    • if the femur is externally rotated relative to neutral the adductors will then externally rotate
  124. kinesiologic function of adductor longus
    • postural stabilizer of the pelvis and femur
    • may flex the hip if there is excessive foot flare during gait
    • most important in swinging the limb in front of the opposite limb and may be recruited during a scissors gain when the flexors are weak or paralyzed
  125. origin of adductor brevis
    deep to the pectineus and adductor longus it araises from the outer surface of the inferior ramus of the pubis
  126. insertion of adductor brevis
    it inserts on the proximal end of the linea aspera, pectinal line, and base of the lesser trochanter of the femur
  127. action of adductor brevis
    • adductor especially across the midline and internal rotation at the hip
    • assists in hip flexion and external rotation when the hip is externally rotated relative to neutral
  128. kinesiolotgic function of adductor brevis
    • sometimes fused with adductor longus
    • contribues to scissors gait
  129. origin of adductor magnus
    posterior fibers originate from the ischial tuberosity; the anterio roblique fibers originate from the ramus of the ischium and inferior ramus of the pubis
  130. insertion of adductor magnus
    the posterior fibers which are oriented more vertically insert on the adductor tubercle and medial supracondylar line just medial to the adductor hiatus; the anterior oblique fibers insert along the entire length of the linea aspera of the femur
  131. action of the adductor magnus
    it is the largest and strongest of the adductor group; it is a powerful adductor and medial rotator; it externally rotates when the thigh is externally rotated; its anterior fibers may assist hip flexion and its posterior fibers may help hip extension
  132. kinesiologic function
    • it is mainly a postural muscle that stabilizes the pelvis and femur during the gait cycle
    • with the hip flexed in a sitting position it is important in stabilizing the femur during resisted knee extension and may be imporant to the VMO in this way when the thigh is externally rotated
  133. innervation for toe flexion
    • L5-S2
    • primarily S1-2
  134. innervation for toe extension
    • L5-S1
    • primarily L5
  135. innervation for hallux extension
    L5
  136. innervation for dorsiflexion
    L4-5
  137. innervation for plantar flexion
    • L5-S2
    • primarily S1-2
  138. innervation for inversion
    L4-5
  139. innervation for eversion
    • L5-S1
    • primarily S1
  140. innervation for knee extension
    • L2-L4
    • primarily L3-4
  141. innervation for knee flexion
    • L5-S2
    • Medial hams mainly L5
    • Lateral hams mainly S1
  142. innervation for hip flexion
    • L1-3
    • primarily L1-2
  143. innervation for hip extension
    • L4-S1
    • primarily L5-S1
  144. innervation for hip adduction and internal rotation
    • L2-4
    • primarily L2-3
  145. innervation for hip abduction
    • L4-S1
    • primarily L5-S1
  146. innervation for hip external rotation
    L5-S1

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