Pharm Study Guide Ch 16-18.txt

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Pharm Study Guide Ch 16-18.txt
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Pharm Study Guide Ch 16 18
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Pharm Study Guide Ch 16-18
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  1. What is an antibiotic spectrum?
    The range of microorganisms an antibiotic is effective against.
  2. Why do pts become resistant to antibiotics?
    Because antibiotics are overused and pts do not take the full course of tx
  3. What infections are acquired while in the hospital?
    Nosocomial infections
  4. What labs will need to be monitored if a medication is excreted by the kidneys?
    BUN, creatinine
  5. What labs will need to be monitored if a medication is excreted by the liver?
    LFT, billirubin
  6. If a pt has a sensitivity to Glipizide3, what else would they be allergic to?
    Sulfanomide
  7. What are 1st generation cephalasporins used to tx?
    Strep, staph & some organisms of the urinary tract
  8. What are 2nd generation cephalasporins used to tx?
    Sames as 1st plus H. influenza of the middle ear & resp tract
  9. What are 3rd generation cephalasporins used to tx?
    Gam-neg invaders of gastrointestinal & urinary tracts and infections that don�t resp to others
  10. What are 4th generation cephalasporins used to tx?
    UTIs, pyelonephritis, infections of skin, soft tissue, & abdomen
  11. What drug is classed as a 4th generation cephalosporin?
    Cefepime (Maxipime)
  12. When is a tetracycline used?
    In PCN sensitive pts
  13. What is tetracycline used to tx?
    respiratory & soft tissue infections and Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
  14. Who should not take tetracyclines?
    Children or pregnant women
  15. What are quinolones used to tx?
    Resp, urinary, gastro, and some STDs; also for infections resistant to older antibiotics
  16. Who shouldn�t take quinolones?
    Pts with renal impairment, digoxin, or anticoagulants
  17. When are erythromycins used?
    In pcn-resistant pts
  18. What are erythromycins used to tx?
    Strep, staph, & bacilli
  19. What is thrush?
    Superinfection/yeast infection
  20. When does thrush occur?
    When the good bacteria has been drained out of the body by antibiotics
  21. What medication is used to tx thrush?
    Mycostatin-swish & spit
  22. How are fungi different, structurally, from bacteria or viruses?
    They contain no chlorophyll or vascular tissue
  23. What are the different types of fungal infections?
    Athletes foot, fungal rashes of the skin, thrush, yeast infections
  24. What is Interferon Alfa-2b used to treat?
    Hepatitis B,C,D & west nile virus
  25. What is lamivudine used to tx?
    Hepatitis B and AIDS
  26. What is varicella zoster?
    Shingles
  27. What causes varicella zoster?
    Chicken pox herpes virus
  28. What drugs are used to tx varicella zoster?
    Acyclovir, lidocaine patch
  29. What medications are used to treat herpes?
    Acyclovir
  30. Who is susceptible to contacting herpes?
    Pts who are immunocompromised, the elderly and children
  31. What is a viral load?
    The number of viral copes per microliter
  32. How is a viral load measured?
    In units
  33. How is HIV detected?
    Viral load & CD4 cell count
  34. What four categories are used to tx HIV?
    NRTIs, NNRTIs, protease inhibitors, fusion inhibitors
  35. What drugs are used to treat herpes?
    Valacyclovir
  36. How are meds used to treat HIV/Aids?
    In combination to block the virus at several points
  37. How is HIV defined?
    As a virus that converts genetic info backward
  38. What are some common places parasites can be found?
    Nursing homes, schools, daycare, book bags, coats
  39. What are the various types of lice?
    Head, body, pubic, scabies
  40. What are some common meds used to treat lice?
    Lindane (kwell)
  41. What precautions are used to tx a pt with lice?
    Protection from head to toe
  42. How is scabies spread?
    By shaking hands
  43. What are the side effects of antibiotics?
    Allergic reaction, superinfection, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting
  44. What was the first antibiotic used?
    Penicillin
  45. What are sulfonamides used to treat?
    Ulcerative colitis, Crohn�s, UTIs, middle ear infections
  46. Why do pts on sulfonamides need adequate fluid intake?
    The chances of crystallization in the urine will be minimized
  47. Who should not take sulfonamides?
    Pts on anticoagulants, digoxin, or phenytoin, pts with diabetes
  48. What meds are used to tx anaphylaxis?
    Epi & steroids to dilate airways
  49. What are the signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis?
    Vasodilatation, low bp & temp, decrease in circulation blood volume & cardiac abnormalities, constriction of the throat
  50. What are the common side effects of antihistamines?
    Drowsiness, fatigue and depression
  51. When should a pt avoid taking antihistamines?
    Taking tranqs, sleeping pills, antihypertensives, alcohol, operating heavy machinery
  52. What is Tigan used to tx?
    Nausea and vomiting
  53. Who is Tigan not recommended for?
    Pregnant women
  54. What is immunotherapy?
    Allergy shots
  55. Who should utilize immunotherapy?
    Pts who are unable or unwilling to avoid an allergen, who experience intolerable side effects, or who have asthma
  56. Where are antihistamines excreted?
    Kidneys
  57. Where are antihistamines metabolized?
    Liver
  58. What is the antihistamine used for nausea/vomiting?
    Phenergan, Tigan, Dramamine
  59. What is a drug allergy?
    Hives, anaphylaxis
  60. What is a drug intolerance?
    nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
  61. What are the anticholinergic effects of antihistamines?
    Drying secretions
  62. What are some non-sedating antihistamines?
    Claritin, Allegra
  63. What special considerations are taken if an antihistamine is given IV/IM?
    Be cautious�can put pt into a deep sleep
  64. What are some safety factors for pts taking antihistamines?
    Fall risk for the elderly, long distance driving, heavy equipment operation
  65. What is Astelin?
    Nasal spray for seasonal allergies/rhinitis
  66. What are the common side effects of Astelin?
    Bitter taste, runny nose, nosebleed, headache, dyspenia
  67. What is an antigen?
    A foreign substance capable of inducing sensitivity and causing and allergic reaction
  68. What is an antibody?
    A tissue response to an allergic reaction
  69. What is the antigen to an allergy?
    Allergen
  70. What are the signs of cardiovascular collapse?
    Urticaria, upper airway edema, wheezing, hypotension
  71. Who is Astelin px for ?
    Adults & children 5+
  72. What common medications are used for motion sickness?
    Dramamine
  73. What are the adverse effects of corticosteroids?
    Skin atropy, depigmentation, adrenal suppression, thin skin
  74. How do corticosteroids work?
    Anti-inflammatory, antipruritic, vasoconstricts
  75. What are local anesthetics used for?
    Minor burns and bites, throat lozenges, biopsies, moles
  76. When is novocaine used?
    Before minor surgery and in dentistry
  77. What types of anesthetics are used
    Cocaine, Novocain, dibucaine, benzocaine
  78. What is Silvadene used to tx?
    2nd & 3rd degree burns
  79. When is silvadene not used?
    On pregnant women near delivery date, allergic to any ingredients or sulfonamides, taking methenamine, have kidney or liver probs
  80. What are the side effects of silvadene?
    Burning, hives, itching, rash, redness, skin discoloration
  81. What is a bactericidal?
    Kills bacteria
  82. What is a bacterostatic?
    Inhibits the growth of bacteria
  83. What is a peak?
    The highest concentration of a med in the body
  84. When is a peak drawn?
    2 hours after the med is administered
  85. What is a trough?
    The lowest concentration of a med in the body
  86. When is a trough drawn?
    1-2 hours before med is administered
  87. When are cultures/sensitivities drawn?
    Before antibiotics are given
  88. Which pt population is at high risk for development of candidiasis?
    Pregnant, diabetes melitis
  89. What is the name of the group of meds used to treat warts or calluses?
    Immune response modifier and kerotolytics
  90. What is a superinfection?
    An infection that occurs when you are being treated for another infection
  91. What is the most common superinfection?
    Vaginitis, yeast infection
  92. What meds can be used in a pt sensitive to penicillin?
    Erythromycin,
  93. What is minocycline used to treat?
    UTIs, acne, gonorrhea, Chlamydia, tick fever
  94. What is a med often used in the tx of AIDS?
    Zidovudine
  95. What is the most common use of a sulfonamide?
    UTI
  96. What is a drug given to tx an allergic reaction?
    Loratadine

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