Pharm Study Guide Ch 16-18.txt
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Pharm Study Guide Ch 16-18.txt
Pharm Study Guide Ch 16 18
Pharm Study Guide Ch 16-18
What is an antibiotic spectrum?
The range of microorganisms an antibiotic is effective against.
Why do pts become resistant to antibiotics?
Because antibiotics are overused and pts do not take the full course of tx
What infections are acquired while in the hospital?
What labs will need to be monitored if a medication is excreted by the kidneys?
What labs will need to be monitored if a medication is excreted by the liver?
If a pt has a sensitivity to Glipizide3, what else would they be allergic to?
What are 1st generation cephalasporins used to tx?
Strep, staph & some organisms of the urinary tract
What are 2nd generation cephalasporins used to tx?
Sames as 1st plus H. influenza of the middle ear & resp tract
What are 3rd generation cephalasporins used to tx?
Gam-neg invaders of gastrointestinal & urinary tracts and infections that don�t resp to others
What are 4th generation cephalasporins used to tx?
UTIs, pyelonephritis, infections of skin, soft tissue, & abdomen
What drug is classed as a 4th generation cephalosporin?
When is a tetracycline used?
In PCN sensitive pts
What is tetracycline used to tx?
respiratory & soft tissue infections and Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
Who should not take tetracyclines?
Children or pregnant women
What are quinolones used to tx?
Resp, urinary, gastro, and some STDs; also for infections resistant to older antibiotics
Who shouldn�t take quinolones?
Pts with renal impairment, digoxin, or anticoagulants
When are erythromycins used?
In pcn-resistant pts
What are erythromycins used to tx?
Strep, staph, & bacilli
What is thrush?
When does thrush occur?
When the good bacteria has been drained out of the body by antibiotics
What medication is used to tx thrush?
Mycostatin-swish & spit
How are fungi different, structurally, from bacteria or viruses?
They contain no chlorophyll or vascular tissue
What are the different types of fungal infections?
Athletes foot, fungal rashes of the skin, thrush, yeast infections
What is Interferon Alfa-2b used to treat?
Hepatitis B,C,D & west nile virus
What is lamivudine used to tx?
Hepatitis B and AIDS
What is varicella zoster?
What causes varicella zoster?
Chicken pox herpes virus
What drugs are used to tx varicella zoster?
Acyclovir, lidocaine patch
What medications are used to treat herpes?
Who is susceptible to contacting herpes?
Pts who are immunocompromised, the elderly and children
What is a viral load?
The number of viral copes per microliter
How is a viral load measured?
How is HIV detected?
Viral load & CD4 cell count
What four categories are used to tx HIV?
NRTIs, NNRTIs, protease inhibitors, fusion inhibitors
What drugs are used to treat herpes?
How are meds used to treat HIV/Aids?
In combination to block the virus at several points
How is HIV defined?
As a virus that converts genetic info backward
What are some common places parasites can be found?
Nursing homes, schools, daycare, book bags, coats
What are the various types of lice?
Head, body, pubic, scabies
What are some common meds used to treat lice?
What precautions are used to tx a pt with lice?
Protection from head to toe
How is scabies spread?
By shaking hands
What are the side effects of antibiotics?
Allergic reaction, superinfection, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting
What was the first antibiotic used?
What are sulfonamides used to treat?
Ulcerative colitis, Crohn�s, UTIs, middle ear infections
Why do pts on sulfonamides need adequate fluid intake?
The chances of crystallization in the urine will be minimized
Who should not take sulfonamides?
Pts on anticoagulants, digoxin, or phenytoin, pts with diabetes
What meds are used to tx anaphylaxis?
Epi & steroids to dilate airways
What are the signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis?
Vasodilatation, low bp & temp, decrease in circulation blood volume & cardiac abnormalities, constriction of the throat
What are the common side effects of antihistamines?
Drowsiness, fatigue and depression
When should a pt avoid taking antihistamines?
Taking tranqs, sleeping pills, antihypertensives, alcohol, operating heavy machinery
What is Tigan used to tx?
Nausea and vomiting
Who is Tigan not recommended for?
What is immunotherapy?
Who should utilize immunotherapy?
Pts who are unable or unwilling to avoid an allergen, who experience intolerable side effects, or who have asthma
Where are antihistamines excreted?
Where are antihistamines metabolized?
What is the antihistamine used for nausea/vomiting?
Phenergan, Tigan, Dramamine
What is a drug allergy?
What is a drug intolerance?
nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
What are the anticholinergic effects of antihistamines?
What are some non-sedating antihistamines?
What special considerations are taken if an antihistamine is given IV/IM?
Be cautious�can put pt into a deep sleep
What are some safety factors for pts taking antihistamines?
Fall risk for the elderly, long distance driving, heavy equipment operation
What is Astelin?
Nasal spray for seasonal allergies/rhinitis
What are the common side effects of Astelin?
Bitter taste, runny nose, nosebleed, headache, dyspenia
What is an antigen?
A foreign substance capable of inducing sensitivity and causing and allergic reaction
What is an antibody?
A tissue response to an allergic reaction
What is the antigen to an allergy?
What are the signs of cardiovascular collapse?
Urticaria, upper airway edema, wheezing, hypotension
Who is Astelin px for ?
Adults & children 5+
What common medications are used for motion sickness?
What are the adverse effects of corticosteroids?
Skin atropy, depigmentation, adrenal suppression, thin skin
How do corticosteroids work?
Anti-inflammatory, antipruritic, vasoconstricts
What are local anesthetics used for?
Minor burns and bites, throat lozenges, biopsies, moles
When is novocaine used?
Before minor surgery and in dentistry
What types of anesthetics are used
Cocaine, Novocain, dibucaine, benzocaine
What is Silvadene used to tx?
2nd & 3rd degree burns
When is silvadene not used?
On pregnant women near delivery date, allergic to any ingredients or sulfonamides, taking methenamine, have kidney or liver probs
What are the side effects of silvadene?
Burning, hives, itching, rash, redness, skin discoloration
What is a bactericidal?
What is a bacterostatic?
Inhibits the growth of bacteria
What is a peak?
The highest concentration of a med in the body
When is a peak drawn?
2 hours after the med is administered
What is a trough?
The lowest concentration of a med in the body
When is a trough drawn?
1-2 hours before med is administered
When are cultures/sensitivities drawn?
Before antibiotics are given
Which pt population is at high risk for development of candidiasis?
Pregnant, diabetes melitis
What is the name of the group of meds used to treat warts or calluses?
Immune response modifier and kerotolytics
What is a superinfection?
An infection that occurs when you are being treated for another infection
What is the most common superinfection?
Vaginitis, yeast infection
What meds can be used in a pt sensitive to penicillin?
What is minocycline used to treat?
UTIs, acne, gonorrhea, Chlamydia, tick fever
What is a med often used in the tx of AIDS?
What is the most common use of a sulfonamide?
What is a drug given to tx an allergic reaction?