Prolonged inspiratory phase with shortened expiratory phase
[bron - co - fanny]
Abnormal transmission of sounds from the lungs or bronchi.
Ask the pt to say "Ninety Nine"
Normally, the sound of the pt's voice becomes less distinct and muffled as the auscultation moves peripherally; bronchophony is the phenomenon of the patient's voice remaining loud at the periphery of the lungs or sounding louder than usual over a distinct area of consolidation, such as in pneumonia, as fluids transmit the sounds better.
refers to an increased loudness of whispering noted during auscultation with a stethoscope on the lung fields on a patient's back.
Ask the pt to whisper "Ninety Nine"
Usually sounds of this volume would not be heard when whispered. It is a test to evaluate for the presence of lung consolidation, which could be caused by cancer or pneumonia.
is an increased resonance of voice sounds often caused by lung consolidation and fibrosis. It is due to enhanced transmission of high-frequency noise across fluid, such as in abnormal lung tissue, with lower frequencies filtered out.
Ask the Pt to say the letter "e"
A higher pitched sound that sounds like the letter "a" indicates pneumonia.
is a vibration felt on the patient's chest during low frequency vocalization.
Ask the Pt to repeat a phrase while you feel for vibrations by placing a hand over the pt's chest or back.
Phrases commonly used in English include, 'boy oh boy' and 'toy boat' as well as 'blue balloons'.
Tactile fremitus is normally more intense in the right second intercostal space, as well as in the interscapular region, as these areas are closest to the bronchial bifurcation.
Tactile fremitus is pathologically increased over areas of consolidation and decreased or absent over areas of pleural effusion or pneumothorax (where there is liquid or air instead of usual lung).
Wet: ↓ or absent
is a vibration felt on the chest when the pt coughs.
Ataxic respirations: abnormal pattern of breathing characterized by groups of quick, shallow inspirations followed by regular or irregular periods of apnea.
Caused by damage to the medulla oblongata due to strokes or trauma or by pressure on the medulla