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Clear liquid part of the cytoplasm
Rough endoplasmic reticula
Smooth endoplasmic reticula
synthesize lipids and steroids
solely regulate calcium levels.
Generate most of the cell's supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
- processes and packages proteins inside of the cell
- and before they make their way to their destination; it is particularly important in the processing of proteins for secretion.
- Forms a part of the cellular endomembrane system.
- Contain digestive enzymes.
- Break down bacteria and organic debris into usable substances like sugars and AAs
- Similar to lysosomes.
- Abundant in the liver.
- Absorb and neutralize toxins, such as alcohol.
- Component of the nucleus.
- A tangle of chromosome filaments containing DNA
- A non-membrane bound structure composed of proteins and nucleic acids found within the nucleus.
- Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is transcribed and assembled within the nucleolus.
Endocrine versus exocrine glands
- Endocrine: secrete hormones directly into the circulatory system
- Exocrine: secrete substances like sweat, saliva, mucus and digestive enzymes onto the epithelial surfaces
Endocrine / Paracrine / Autocrine / Synaptic signalling
- Endocrine: via hormones through the body
- Paracrine: secretion of chemical mediators that act only on nearby cells
- Autocrine: secretions that only affect the secreting cell
- Synaptic: via neurotransmitters