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  1. Pectus excavatum
    Funnel Chest
  2. Pectus carinatum
    Pigeon chest
  3. Cytosol
    Clear liquid part of the cytoplasm
  4. Rough endoplasmic reticula
    synthesize proteins,
  5. Smooth endoplasmic reticula
    synthesize lipids and steroids
  6. Sarcoplasmic reticula
    solely regulate calcium levels.
  7. Mitochondria
    Generate most of the cell's supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
  8. Golgi apparatus
    • processes and packages proteins inside of the cell
    • and before they make their way to their destination; it is particularly important in the processing of proteins for secretion.
    • Forms a part of the cellular endomembrane system.
  9. Lysosomes
    • Contain digestive enzymes.
    • Break down bacteria and organic debris into usable substances like sugars and AAs
  10. Peroxisomes
    • Similar to lysosomes.
    • Abundant in the liver.
    • Absorb and neutralize toxins, such as alcohol.
  11. Chromatin
    • Component of the nucleus.
    • A tangle of chromosome filaments containing DNA
  12. Nucleolus
    • A non-membrane bound structure composed of proteins and nucleic acids found within the nucleus.
    • Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is transcribed and assembled within the nucleolus.
  13. Endocrine versus exocrine glands
    • Endocrine: secrete hormones directly into the circulatory system
    • Exocrine: secrete substances like sweat, saliva, mucus and digestive enzymes onto the epithelial surfaces
  14. Endocrine / Paracrine / Autocrine / Synaptic signalling
    • Endocrine: via hormones through the body
    • Paracrine: secretion of chemical mediators that act only on nearby cells
    • Autocrine: secretions that only affect the secreting cell
    • Synaptic: via neurotransmitters
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