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Tough layer of dense fibrous tissue, directly beneath the scalp, on the superior aspect of the cranium
SCALP layers of the skin:
- S: Skin
- C: Connective tissue - A thin layer of fat and fibrous tissue lies beneath the skin.
- A: Aponeurotica (Galea aponeurotica)
- L: Layer of subaponeurotica (areolar) tissue - contains emissary veins transferring blood from dural sinuses to venous vessels of the scalp.
- P: Periosteum of the skull (the pericranium)
Skull bone - Frontal
Skull bone - Sphenoid
Between Zygomatic and Temporal
Skull bone - Ethmoid
Skull bone - Lacrimal
Side of nose by tear duct
Skull bone - Maxilla
Skull bone - Mandible
Skull bone - Zygomatic
Skull bone - Parietal
top of head
Skull bone - Temporal
Skull bone - Occipital
back of head
Frontal lobe does?
Parietal lobes does?
- Motor & sensory control
Occipital lobe does?
Temporal lobes does?
- Long term memory
- 4 senses: Hearing, Speech, Taste, Smell.
A dural partition between hemispheres
Extension of the dura mater that separates the cerebellum from the inferior portion of the occipital lobes.
Separates the parietal lobe from the frontal lobe
Brainstem, 3 parts?
- Medulla oblongata
Cerebellum location and does?
- Fine motor control
- Muscle tone
Midbrain location and does?
- Upper portion of the brainstem that connects the pons and cerebellum with the central hemispheres.
- Controls eye movement
Pons location and does?
- Communication interchange between CNS components; cerebellum, cerebrum, midbrain and spinal cord
- Responsible for sleep components of the Reticular Activating System (RAS)
Medulla oblongata location and does?
- Contains the Cardiac centre, Respiratory centre, Vasomotor centers.
- Deals with autonomic, involuntary functions, such as breathing, heart rate and blood pressure.
Diencephalon - 3 parts
- Limbic system
Thalamus location and does?
- Switching center between pons and cerebrum
- Controls the Reticular Activating System (RAS): Establishes consciousness & Sleep-wake cycle
Hypothalamus location and does?
- Endocrine function
- Hunger, Thirst, Vomiting, Kidney function
- Body temp regulation
Limbic system location and does?
- a set of brain structures including the hippocampus, amygdala, and some other weird shit
External carotid arteries
supply the face and scalp with blood.
Internal carotid arteries
supply blood to the anterior 3/5 of cerebrum
- Pass through the vertebrae, and supply the posterior 2/5 of the cerebrum, part of the cerebellum, and the brain stem.
- They join in the base of the skull to form one vessel, the Basilar artery
Where common carotid divides into the internal and external carotid arteries
Circle of Willis
The internal carotid and basilar arteries join at the base of the brain, forming a circle of communicating arteries, so if any one vessel is blocked, blood supply will be uninterrupted.
Cerebral Perfusion Pressure (CPP)
- Pressure moving blood through the cranium
- CPP = MAP - ICP
- Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP)
- What this means is that, if there is any increase in ICP (be it edema, or space being taken up by a tumor) then the bodies response to maintain CPP is to increase BP.
- ↑ BP will ↑ MAP to compensate for ↑ ICP, thus maintaining CPP
- But, ↑ BP will ↑ ICP. This leads to a feedback loop which'll end in death
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