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  1. Pluripotent stem cells
    Blood Stem Cells
  2. Hematopoiesis
    differentiation of pluripotent stem cells
  3. Extramedullary hematopoiesis
    Hematopoiesis in a foetus outside of the bone marrow
  4. Intramedullary hematopoiesis
    Hematopoiesis after birth inside of the bone marrow
  5. Thrombocytes
    • Platelets
    • Small fragments of large cells called Megakaryocytes
  6. Megakaryocytes
    Splits into platelets
  7. Thrombopoietin
    Forms platelets from Pluripotent stem cells
  8. Thrombocytopenia
    Too few platelets, leading to bleeding problems and blood loss
  9. Thrombocytosis
    Too many platelets, leading to excessive clotting and thrombi/emboli
  10. Hematopoietic system components
    • Blood (cells and plasma)
    • Bone marrow
    • Liver
    • Spleen
    • Kidneys
  11. Erythropoiesis
    • [ear-rith-row-poi-e-sis]
    • Production of RBCs by differentiation of stem cells via the stimulation of bone marrow by Erythropoietin
  12. Erythropoietin
    a hormone formed mainly in the kidneys, but somewhat in the liver.
  13. Hemolysis
    Destruction of RBCs. Average lifespan is 120 days.
  14. Hematocrit / RBC count / Hemoglobin concentration
    • Hematocrit: Packed cell volume of RBCs in blood (i.e. the % of RBCs in blood). Usually ≈ 40% - 52%
    • RBC count: Number of RBCs per cubic mm of blood. Usually ≈ 4.2 - 6.0 million/mm³
    • Hemoglobin concentration: grams of Hb per decilitre of whole blood | Usually ≈ 12-15 g/dL in ♂ | Usually ≈ 10.5-14 g/dL in♀
  15. White Blood Cells:
    • Healthy pt will have ≈ 5,000 - 9,000 WBC per microlitre (µL)
    • Infections can raise this number to >16,000
  16. Marginated leukocytes
    Large % of total WBCs which attach to blood vessel walls waiting for action.
  17. WBC demargination
    Marginated leukocytes detach from blood vessle walls
  18. Diapedesis
    WBCs travel through the lining of a blood vessel
  19. Chemotaxis
    WBCs follow chemical signals to an infection site
  20. Phagocytosis
    WBCs engulf and destroy invaders
  21. Leukopoiesis
    Production of WBCs by differentiation of stem cells
  22. Basophils
    • [bay-so-phils]
    • Absorb basic stains and have blue granules
    • Primarily involved in allergic reactions.
    • Their granules contain Histamines and Heparin
  23. Histamines
    Released in allergic reactions
  24. Heparin
    Break down blood clots
  25. Lymphocytes
    • formed from Lymphoblasts
    • Primary cells involved in immune response
    • No granules or staining
    • Highly specialized with surface receptors specific to a single antigen
    • Have two forms: T- and B-cells
  26. T cells
    • Called that because they mature in the Thymus gland within the mediastinum
    • Antigen-specific
    • Part of the Cell mediated immunity response
    • Are able to induce apoptosis in body cells displaying foreign antigen on their surface,
    • Once an antigen activates them, they stimulate the production of other cells called Effector cells (aka plasmocytes) (aka B Cells)
  27. B cells
    • Originate in Bone marrow and migrate to peripheral lymphatic tissue.
    • Some B cells are maintained in the body after an attack, giving the body a `memory` of the previous infection
    • Once exposed to an antigen, they produce large volumes of the specific antibodies necessary to defend against the invader, an effect called Humoral immunity
  28. Humoral immunity
    • B-cell mediated
    • Because protective function of immunization is found in the humor (cell-free bodily fluid/serum)
  29. Eosinophils
    • [ear-uh-sin-oh-phils]
    • Granulocyte
    • Absorb acidic stains and have red granules
    • They can inactivate the chemical mediators of acute allergic reactions, thus modulating the anaphylactic response.
    • Their granules contain:Major Base Protein (MBP) - A protein released in conjunction to an antibody used against parasitic infections
  30. Major Base Protein (MBP)
    A protein released in conjunction to an antibody used against parasitic infections
  31. Granulocytes
    Contain granules & have 3 forms: Basophils, Eosinophils, and Neutrophils
  32. Myeloblasts
    Form Granulocytes
  33. Monoblasts
    Form Monocytes
  34. Monocytes
    Dormant form of WBC that can mature when needed into: Macrophages
  35. Macrophages
    • 'Garbage collectors' which engulf foreign invaders, dead neutrophils, and remove damaged or abnormal RBCs
    • Attack tumors
    • Involved in tissue repair
    • Secrete growth factors that stimulated production of Granulocytes and RBCs
    • Some are bound to tissues and form part of the; Reticuloendothelial system
  36. Reticuloendothelial system
    Macrophages, after engulfing foreign bodies or infectious agents, stimulate Lymphocyte production in an immune response
  37. Neutrophils
    • Type of Granulocyte
    • Absorb neither acidic or base stains, and contain pale blue and pink granules
    • Primarily used to fight infection by phagocytosis
    • If the neutrophil count is low then you have Neutropenia
  38. Neutropenia
    • neutrophil count is low
    • Where the infection may overwhelm and kill the pt.
    • can be => of bone marrow disorders
  39. Apoptosis
    the process of programmed cell death
  40. Antibodies
    • aka an immunoglobulin, is a large Y-shaped protein used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects such as bacteria and viruses.
    • The antibody recognizes a unique part of the foreign target, termed an antigen
    • Each tip of the "Y" of an antibody contains a 'lock' that is specific for one particular antigen 'key'
    • Using this binding mechanism, an antibody can tag a microbe or an infected cell for attack by other parts of the immune system, or can neutralize its target directly (e.g. by blocking a part of a microbe that is essential for its invasion and survival).
  41. Cell mediated immunity
    • aka cellular immunity because protective function of immunization is associated with cells
    • is an immune response that does not involve antibodies, but rather involves the activation of various cells including Macrophages and antigen-specific T cells
Card Set:
2012-01-15 21:26:00
EMT book1

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