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  1. pCO₂
    • Partial pressure of CO₂
    • Directly related to pH
  2. pO₂
    • Partial pressure of O₂
    • High pO₂ = oxygen binds readily to haemoglobin that is present.
    • Low pO₂ = oxygen is released
  3. O₂ affinity and pH / pCO₂
    • ↑ pCO₂ → ↑ CO₂ → ↓ pH → ↑ acidic → ↓ Hemoglobin O₂ affinity → release of O₂
    • Vice versa → binding of O₂
    • This is known as the Bohr effect
  4. Bohr effect
    • Where a decrease in pCO₂ / pH (acidity) causes an increase in the quantity of Oxygen that binds to hemoglobin (and vice versa).
    • So as more CO₂ is created and diffuses into the blood, then pH becomes more acidic, so more O₂ is released out to the cells.
    • The opposite is also the case, where alkalosis caused hemoglobin to hang on more tightly to the O₂
    • Upshot of this is that O₂ binds to Hemoglobin in the lungs and is released to the tissues of the body.
  5. 2,3-DPG
    • 2,3-Diphosphoglycerate
    • 2nd most abundant chemical in RBCs aside from hemoglobin
    • Affects hemoglobins affinity for O₂
    • Hypoxia → ↑ DPG → curve moves right and → ↑ O₂ released
  6. Temperature and pO₂
    Fevers enhance oxygenation of peripheral tissues and organs
  7. Exercise and pO₂
    ↑ Temp + ↑ CO₂ (thus ↓ pH) → enhanced oxygenation of tissues
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